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Microbiome studies may be highlighted as crucial in the development of depression for TBI patients. The microbiota-gut-brain connection may further provide an opportunity for microbiota manipulation to treat the TBI patients with depression.This study is to investigate whether exist the relationship between depression and circadian rhythm of patients with TBI or not and focus the study on the potential of the host-microbiota interaction in regulating depression.
Neuroscientists are probing the connections between intestinal microbes and brain development. The general scaffolding of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis includes the central nervous system (CNS), the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems,the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system (ANS),the enteric nervous system (ENS), and of course the intestinal microbiota. These components interact to form a complex reflex network with afferent fibers that project to integrative CNS structures and efferent projections to the smooth muscle. Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and the role of microbiota as a"peacekeeper" in the brain health. It is now clear that the gut-brain communication is bidirectional. On one hand, changes in the microbial community affect behavior. On the other hand, perturbations in behavior alter the composition of the gut microbiota. Since changes in the composition of the gut microbiota are associated with the behavioral and cognitive alterations, a healthy microbiota community is essential for a normal regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Among the potential factors regulating the axis, microbial metabolites may be the major mediators. Seven million traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur each year in the many countries. One of the most common sequelae in patients exposed to TBI is post-traumatic brain syndrome, which is especially common following mild TBI. And the common one is depression.Depression is governed by the intricate interplay between sleep wake homeostasis and circadian rhythms in the body. These rhythms are largely controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. Clock genes form the molecular machinery of this circadian system, operating via autoregulatory feedback loops.
Among the vertebrate peripheral tissues that express circadian rhythms is the gastrointestinal system, which exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression (including clock genes), motility and secretion in vivo and in vitro. These rhythms depend upon a patent molecular clock and they are also coordinated by SCN input via the sympathetic nervous system.
The emerging role of the gut microbiome as an important modulator of gastrointestinal function has recently included the role of circadian rhythms. Recent studies have suggested that microbial signaling plays a critical role in homeostatic maintenance of intestinal function along with the host circadian mechanism.
Observational Model: Case Control
Loss of Consciousness of Unspecified Duration Cerebral Laceration and Contusion Traumatic Brain Injury
The TBI patients with depression
General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University
General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-08-23T12:23:22-0400
In recent years, promoting wakening attempts in patients with disorders of consciousness are increasing, but there are a lack of objective indicators to evaluate the efficacy and further r...
Microbiome studies may be highlighted as crucial in the development of sleep disorder for TBI patients. The microbiota-gut-brain connection may further provide an opportunity for microbiot...
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A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The use of several ANESTHETICS together in small amounts, as opposed to a larger amount of one drug, to induce loss of sensation and loss of consciousness.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
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