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In proximal urea cycle disorders (UCD), particularly ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), hyperammonemia (HA) causes increased brain glutamine (Gln) which perturbation is thought to be at the core of the neurological injury. In contrast, in distal UCD such as citrullinemia (argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency; (ASSD) and argininosuccinic aciduria (argininosuccinate lyase deficiency); (ASLD) cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disease are common even in the absence of acute HA. As a consequence, both citrulline and argininosuccinate (ASA) or their metabolic products have been implicated as neurotoxic. In this project the investigators will use state-of- the-art neuroimaging and neuropsychological methods to investigate whether patients with OTCD have chronically elevated brain Gln and reduced myo-inositol (mI) levels that correlate with regional brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction. The researchers will further investigate whether during an acute episode of HA elevated brain Gln and decreased mI levels correlate with the magnitude of cytotoxic edema and whether a Gln/mI ratio threshold can be identified at which the cytotoxic edema is followed by cell loss. Finally, the researchers will investigate whether regions of brain damage in ASSD and/or ASLD are distinct from those in OTCD and compare brain Gln levels in ASSD and ASLD in the absence of HA to those in OTCD. The investigators will also seek to determine if brain citrulline and ASA can be identified in the brains of patients with distal UCD and whether they correlate with brain abnormalities seen in MRI and neuropsychological testing. This project will elucidate the chronology of brain pathology both in acute hyperammonemia and chronic UCD and whether, proximal and distal UCD differ in their pathophysiology of brain damage.
UCDs are a group of rare genetic diseases that affect how protein is broken down in the body. The cause of UCDs is a deficiency in one of eight enzymes responsible for removing ammonia, a waste product of protein metabolism, from the bloodstream. Normally, ammonia is converted into urea and then removed from the body in the form of urine. However, in people with UCDs, ammonia accumulates unchecked and is not removed from the body. Toxic levels of ammonia can build up and cause irreversible neurologic damage that can affect metabolism, cognition, sensation, and movement. This study will focus on the most common enzyme disorder among UCDs, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), a disorder inherited from mothers. Using different types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study will evaluate how UCD-related neurologic injuries affect metabolism, cognition, sensation, and movement in adults with OTCD.
This study will be separated into three sections. The first study will study longitudinal changes in OTCD. The second section will study the recovery of OTCD participants from a hyperammonemic episode over time. The third section will be a longitudinal study of the distal urea cycle disorders. In all cases, participants in this study will attend an initial study visit that will include a review of medical history, current symptoms, impairments, and diet history; a physical exam; a full neurological exam; and cognitive and motor testing. During this visit, participants will undergo imaging studies and additional cognitive and motor testing over a 1-2-day period. This will include standard MRI studies and four sessions consisting of functional MRI (fMRI) (CNMC only), diffusion tensor imaging, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For the fMRI study, participants perform various motor and behavioral tasks while in the imaging scanner. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to study and evaluate the chemical makeup of specific brain areas. Diffusion tensor imaging is used to assess myelination of major brain pathways and their alteration in disease states. This study will involve multiple time point participation. The study will be conducted at Children's National Medical Center and Boston Children's Hospital.
Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective
Urea Cycle Disorders
Children's Research Institute
District of Columbia
Children's Research Institute
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-10-18T02:08:21-0400
RATIONALE: The urea cycle is the process in which nitrogen is removed from the blood and converted into urea, a waste product found in urine . Urea cycle disorders are inherited disorders ...
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Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.
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