Carbon Monoxide and Oxidative Stress in Waterpipe Smokers

2016-10-19 02:38:21 | BioPortfolio


Waterpipe is a tool for smoking tobacco, which is thought to be less harmful than cigarette. Unfortunately, there aren't adequate studies about its harms to health that are threatening the young generation all over the world today. The objective of this study was to show the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in waterpipe smokers' breaths, whether can be used or not to reflect the changes of oxidative stress for this reason to predict harmful effects on the pulmonary functions.


Waterpipe or hookah uses a different kind of tobacco, which is available in most Balkan countries, Middle East and South Asia. Popularity of smoking waterpipe among European, Canadian, and American young people has shown a dramatic rise over the past decade. The growing popularity of waterpipe use among U.S. teens and adults is evidenced by media reports and the recent rapid proliferation of waterpipe establishments (bars, cafes, or restaurants) in large cities and near college campuses. Typical waterpipes have the following components; a bowl where the tobacco is placed and heated, usually with burning embers or charcoal, a vase or smoke chamber which is partially filled with water, a pipe or stem connecting the bowl to the vase by a tube that carries the smoke down into the water, and a hose with a mouthpiece through which the smoke is drawn from the vase. As the smoker inhales, the tobacco smoke is sucked down from the bowl and then bubbles up through the water into the air of the smoke chamber and then through the hose to the smoker. At the end of a smoking session, the dirty water is thrown away and the waterpipe vase is refilled for the next user. Although each smoking session generally lasts about 45 to 60 minutes, it can also continue for several hours.

There is a misconception about smoking waterpipe that it is less harmful than cigarettes, and that's why smoking waterpipe is dramatically increasing especially among young people. While the adverse effects of smoking cigarette are widely described, there are just a few investigations about waterpipe and its effects. This study was designed to investigate the effects of smoking waterpipe on pulmonary functions and oxidative stress parameters.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Bio-availability Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Diagnostic


Waterpipe Smoking


Breath carbon monoxide, Pulmonary function tests., Oxidative stress and antioxidant status.




Ataturk Training and Research Hospital

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-10-19T02:38:21-0400

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A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.

A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.

Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Any tests done on exhaled air.

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