Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Enterovirus infections may either increase or decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes depending on the age of infection and the type of enterovirus in question. This study evaluated whether early serial exposures to three replication-competent enterovirus strains (live poliovirus vaccine, OPV) can influence the immunity to other enteroviruses and the possible initiation of autoantibodies e.g. islet autoimmunity in young genetically predisposed children.
Enteroviruses have been associated with type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enterovirus infections may either increase or decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes depending on the age of infection and the type of enterovirus in question. There is remarkable homology between the structure of poliovirus and other enteroviruses. It has been shown in previous studies that the T-lymphocytes recognize these structures and cross-react with different enterovirus serotypes. Our hypothesis is that poliovaccination induces a cross-reacting T-cell response which strengthens enterovirus immunity and thus accelerate the elimination of the enterovirus infections. We evaluated whether early serial live enterovirus vaccine (oral polio vaccine, OPV) can influence the enterovirus immunity and initiation of islet autoimmunity in young genetically predisposed children.
This study was carried out in the birth cohort of the ongoing Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study in Finland. All the children carried HLA-DQ genes conferring moderately increased risk for type 1 diabetes (HLA DQB1*0302/x, x≠ DQB1*0201, *0301, *0602). Sixty-four children (34 males) were given doses of OPV (Polio Sabin®, SB Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) at the age of 2, 3, 6 and 12 months during the years 1999-2000 (two drops per os in each dose). This vaccine includes attenuated replication competent strains of the three poliovirus types (polioviruses 1, 2, 3) leading to infection in vaccinated children. The control group comprising 251 children received inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at the age of 6 and 12 months according to the national immunization protocol in Finland at that time. After the age of 12 months both groups were recommended to continue the national immunization program with IPV vaccine.
All children were followed regularly from birth with blood samples taken at 3-12 months interval for detection of type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies in serum including insulin autoantibodies (IAA), islet cell cytoplasmic antibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated protein 2 antibodies (IA-2A) and GAD antibodies (GADA) (5-7). Stool samples were collected monthly at the age of 2-24 months and systematically screened for the presence of enterovirus and using RT-PCR.
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
University of Tampere
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-11-15T11:38:22-0500
This phase IV clinical study evaluates the safety of enterovirus 71 vaccine in children aged 6-35 months old by the method of both passive and active surveillance.
Oral polio and rotavirus vaccines are significantly less effective in children living in the developing world. Tropical enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal inflammation, decre...
The purpose of this study was to evaluated the effectiveness of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at a vaccine schedule that is commonly used in developing countries. The effectiveness of in...
Concomitant administration of multiple vaccines, including live attenuated immunizations, is safe and effective. Some restrictions apply for live vaccines; administering a live-virus vacci...
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major pathogen causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, is a member of the Human Enterovirus species A, family Picornaviridae. Its infection occasiona...
The globally synchronized switch from trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (bOPV) took place in Nigeria on April 18th 2016. The country is divided into six geopolitical z...
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with...
The impact of inactivated polio vaccines (IPVs) on intestinal mucosal immune responses to live poliovirus is poorly understood.
When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with r...
Environmental surveillance (ES) is a sensitive method for detecting human enterovirus (HEV) circulation and it is used worldwide to support global polio eradication. We describe a novel ES approach us...
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...