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Esophageal pressure (PES), which has been used as a surrogate for pleural pressure. The volume of esophageal balloon can influence the accuracy of monitoring esophageal pressure. The optimal balloon volume is directly dependent on surrounding pressure. In the present study,the investigators will observe the optimal volume of esophageal balloon during the different PEEP in bench and clinical study.
The esophageal pressure (Pes) is used as a surrogate for pleural pressure to obtain transpulmonary pressure. Catheter with air balloon is the most commonly used method to measure the Pes. The optimal injected volume of the balloon is the key factor in accurate measurement of Pes. The recoil pressure of the balloon turns up while the balloon is over-filled, resulting in over-estimation of the PES; on the other hand, an under-filled balloon also cannot properly transmit the surrounding pressure of balloon. However, the researchers showed the optimal balloon volumes is related to the surrounding pressure and even is not correspond with manufacturer's recommendations. Theoretically, when balloon transmural pressure(PTM) is zero, representing the balloon in a condition with equivalent pressure inside and outside of the balloon, it was defined as optimal volume. However, in clinical settings, it is difficult to determine the balloon PTM, and therefore the optimal volume cannot be obtained, because the surrounding pressure of the balloon cannot be conveniently measured.
In the present study, the investigators will develop a simple method to obtain the optimal balloon volume and observe the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on optimal balloon volume during esophageal pressure monitoring. The investigators want to validate the accuracy of method in the bench study and clinical feasibility in mechanical ventilated patients.
Observational Model: Case-Crossover, Time Perspective: Prospective
Positive end-expiratory Pressure
ICU, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University
Capital Medical University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-11-30T15:45:13-0500
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Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).