Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia in Italy Over the Years 2010-2016

2016-12-05 17:23:21 | BioPortfolio


Pre-eclampsia is a heterogeneous multisystem disorder that complicates 2-8% of pregnancies and remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.

Pre-eclampsia is defined as new onset of hypertension (defined as a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg and a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg on at least two different recordings taken at least 4-6 h apart and less than 7 days apart, using an appropriate cuff) and substantial proteinuria (defined as excretion of protein ≥300 mg in 24 h or a protein concentration ≥ 300 mg/L or ≥ "1 +" on dipstick in at least two random urine samples taken at least 4-6 h apart but no more than 7 days apart) at or after 20 weeks of gestation.

Pre-eclampsia only occurs in the presence of placenta and is resolved by delivery of the same. However, the underlying causes of the disease remain largely unknown.


Poor placentation is considered a powerful predisposing factor for pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been suggested that the occurrence of pre-eclampsia requires a combination of an excessive or atypical maternal immune response to the trophoblast and/or exaggerated endothelial activation as well as a generalised hyper-inflammatory state resulting in endothelial dysfunction and associated increased vascular reactivity. Any factors (maternal and paternal constitutional, genetic and environmental risk factors) that enhance these responses would predispose to pre-eclampsia.

The list of predisposing factors includes: extremes of maternal age, black race, previous history of pre-eclampsia, family history of pre-eclampsia, multifetal gestation, ≥ 10 years from previous pregnancy, limited sperm exposure, first paternity, pregnancies after donor insemination (assisted reproductive technology), oocyte donation or embryo donation, chronic hypertension or renal disease, rheumatic disease, maternal low birth weight, obesity and insulin resistance, pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, increased testosterone, increased homocysteine concentration, atherosclerosis (increased triglycerides and LDL, decreased HDL), maternal infections, pre-existing thrombophilia, maternal susceptibility genes and hydropic degeneration of placenta. Finally, smoking seems to be inversely correlated with pre-eclampsia.

Pre-eclampsia can result in a fetal syndrome characterized by fetal growth restriction, reduced amniotic fluid, abnormal oxygenation, fetal demise and preterm birth. Moreover, women with pre-eclampsia are at increased risk for abruptio placentae, disseminated coagulopathy/HELLP syndrome, pulmonary oedema, acute renal failure, eclampsia, cerebral haemorrhage, death and cardiovascular or renal disease.

Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for close surveillance and preventive strategies

Study Design

Observational Model: Cohort




Asst Papa Giovanni Xxiii




Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-12-05T17:23:21-0500

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).

A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.

A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)

A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.

An ADAMTS protease that contains eight thrombospondin (TS) motifs. It cleaves VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR to control vWF-mediated THROMBOSIS. Mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene have been identified in familial cases of PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC and defects in ADAMTS13 activity are associated with MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; PRE-ECLAMPSIA; and MALARIA.

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