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The investigators are interested in learning more about choline, a nutrient required by the body. The body does make some choline, but it does not make enough to support health and the rest must be acquired through diet. Eggs, and especially egg yolks, are a major dietary source of choline. Choline can also be given as a dietary supplement. Ingestion of choline supplements has been linked to an increased concentration of a compound called TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide). Elevated TMAO levels have been linked to higher heart disease risk. With this study, the investigators hope to learn whether there is a difference in the way your body responds to the ingestion of a choline supplement versus the choline found within eggs.
The principal goal for the study is to examine whether there is a difference between the ingestion of choline through supplements versus choline found within eggs on plasma TMAO levels. The investigators have previously shown that dietary intake of trimethylamines, including the choline group of phosphatidylcholine (PC), is mechanistically linked to cardiovascular disease risk and that the metabolism of these trimethylamine nutrients in humans is modulated by the intestinal microbes (gut microbes). Additionally, extensive animal studies link an essential role of gut microbiota to the metabolism of choline and the production of metabolites that promote / accelerate atherosclerotic processes (Wang et al, 2011, Nature). The investigators have also recently shown a 10-fold increase in plasma TMAO levels following supplementation with choline bitartrate supplements. However, another pilot study by a collaborator (unpublished) did not show the same increase in plasma TMAO levels following the ingestion of whole eggs, a major dietary source of choline. Therefore, with this study the investigators wish to examine the differences, if any, between the ingestion of an equivalent mass of total choline in the free form (as bitartrate salt) as a supplement vs. within whole eggs.
Eggs, and specifically the egg yolk, contain a large amount of total choline (USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods, 2008). However, egg white contains potential anti-microbial peptides that could influence gut microbial composition and function, and therefore impact conversion of choline into TMA and TMAO observed in subjects. Therefore, the investigators hypothesize that the consumption of whole eggs (hardboiled) will not elevate plasma TMAO levels to the same extent as a comparable amount of total choline ingested in capsule form as the choline bitartrate salt. The investigators further hypothesize that the consumption of egg white with choline bitartrate tablets may result in less of a rise in TMAO levels than ingestion of the choline bitartrate supplement alone.
Cardiovascular Risk Factor
Choline Bitartrate, Pre-cooked, pre-peeled whole hardboiled eggs, Egg whites from pre-cooked, pre-peeled hardboiled eggs
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
The Cleveland Clinic
Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-02-02T09:53:21-0500
The objective of this study is to determine the effects of consuming either 3 eggs per day and compare it to daily choline supplement (choline bitartrate) for a dose of approximately 400 m...
The objective of this study is to determine the effects of consuming either 3 eggs per day as compared to a daily choline supplement (choline bitartrate, 397.5 mg choline/day) on plasma co...
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Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 18.104.22.168.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 22.214.171.124.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 126.96.36.199.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...