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Diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculosis remains especially challenging since the number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli present in tissues at sites of disease is often low and clinical specimens from deep-seated organs may be difficult to obtain. Histology is time-consuming to undertake and establishing a diagnosis of tuberculosis with high specificity remains difficult. Tissue microscopy after special staining is often negative and when mycobacteria are seen, it is impossible to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis from non tuberculous mycobacterial disease. Reliance on culture, the mainstay of diagnosis, often leads to considerable delays, compromising patient care and outcomes.
Evidence from 138 studies published before 2008 suggested that nucleic acid amplification technologies could not replace conventional mycobacterial tests (microscopy, culture) for diagnosing pulmonary and, especially, extra pulmonary tuberculosis
Only a few years later, GeneXpert technology has changed this paradigm, with a recent systematic review showing pooled sensitivity of 88% and pooled specificity of 98% for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, but evidence (as of March 2012) for using Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing extra pulmonary tuberculosis is still comparatively weak Globally, there is still a dearth of studies involving the use of Xpert MTB/RIF in extra pulmonary tuberculosis specimens, and few provide definitive answers. This is due mostly to the studies having small sample sizes across a range of various specimen types and differences in pre-processing methodologies and in input volumes and to studies having been conducted in different populations (adults, children, Human immunodeficiency virus infected).
Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-06-01T19:08:21-0400
Recent advances in molecular diagnostics of tuberculosis, especially the GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin test have reduced the time to diagnose Rifampicin Resistant Tubercu...
Most of the guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis suggest that 6 months treatment is sufficient for extrapulmonary tuberculosis except for bone tuberculosis and tubercular meningitis...
This is an observational study using Bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL) as specimen for GeneXpert, a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of tuberculosis (TB). Patient...
This is a case control observational study using Bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL) as specimen for GeneXpert, a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of tuberculosis (...
Tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency are important public health problems in India. Before the advent of effective antitubercular therapy, patients with tuberculosis were advised treatme...
Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a priority for TB programs globally to initiate treatment early and improve treatment outcomes. Currently, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain-based microscopy, Ge...
Among infectious agents, Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most significant causes of death worldwide. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a great challenge...
Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) contribute to poor outcomes, especially for endobronchial TB (EBTB), which typically leads to tracheobronchial stenosis. Finding rapid and accurate...
Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assa...
To determine whether there were any changes in demographic and clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Over nine million new cases of TB, and nearly two million deaths from TB, are estimated to occur around the world every year, and new inf...