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Large postprandial glucose responses are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our group have previously shown that fruit polyphenol extracts, when consumed immediately before a mixed carbohydrate meal, reduce postprandial glycaemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a blackcurrant polyphenol extract and citrus polyphenol extract (and their combination), on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and gastrointestinal hormone concentrations following a mixed carbohydrate test meal. It is hypothesised that blackcurrant and citrus extracts alone will inhibit glycaemia compared to placebo, and a combination of the two will have a greater effect.
Intake of carbohydrate-rich foods transiently increases blood glucose levels (known as postprandial glycaemia). Repeated high postprandial glucose responses are evidenced to dysregulate functional proteins, oxidative stress and pancreatic beta cell function; thus increasing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, meals that elicit a reduced, or more gradual, rise in blood glucose levels are desirable. Fruit polyphenols may help to limit the glucose excursion following a high carbohydrate meal. Previous research by our group has demonstrated that blackcurrant polyphenols significantly inhibited the average incremental area under the curve (T+0 to +30 min) of plasma glucose. Possible mechanisms include inhibition of intestinal enzymes and inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption by decreasing Sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT-1) / Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) glucose transporter activity. In vitro data suggests that citrus polyphenols may impact on carbohydrate metabolism by binding to starch molecules, however, effects on postprandial glycaemia are not yet known. Blackcurrants and citrus fruits have distinct polyphenol profiles and may therefore act on glucose homeostasis via different mechanisms. Blackcurrants are rich in anthocyanins and flavanols, whereas citrus fruits are rich in flavanones, hesperetin and naringenin. Theoretically, combining blackcurrant with citrus extracts may have synergistic effects.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of blackcurrant polyphenol extracts and citrus polyphenol extracts (and their combination), on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and gastrointestinal hormone concentrations following a mixed carbohydrate test meal. It is hypothesised that blackcurrant and citrus extracts alone will inhibit glycaemia compared to placebo, a combination of the two will have a greater effect.
Study design: A randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over study will be conducted. Subjects will consume different drinks at 4 separate study visits. Drinks will contain either: blackcurrant extract (low dose), blackcurrant extract (high dose), citrus extract (low dose), blackcurrant and citrus extract (low dose + low dose), or placebo (no polyphenols). The study will utilise an incomplete block design. Subjects will consume the placebo drink and 3 out of 4 of the polyphenol-containing drinks during the study. At least a 7-day wash-out period will be required between study days. Baseline (fasted) blood samples will be taken in duplicate at T-10 min and T-5 min before consuming the test drink (T+0 min). Immediately following consumption of the drink, a mixed carbohydrate test meal will be consumed. Further blood samples will be collected at 10 min intervals for the first 30 min and then every 15 min until T+90 min and at T+120 min. Blood samples will be analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), C-peptide and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA).
Blackcurrant extract (low dose), Placebo, Citrus extract (low dose), Blackcurrant extract (high dose), Blackcurrant and citrus extracts (low dose / low dose)
Metabolic Research Unit
Lucozade Ribena Suntory
Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-06-14T00:56:49-0400
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