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This study is to identify the independent effect of estradiol (E2) on endothelin-1 (ET-1) mediated vasomotor function in women. This study is the first step in recognizing the impact of ovarian hormones on the mechanisms that regulate vascular function in women to provide a better understanding of the cardiovascular efficacy of hormone therapy.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women (Roger, Go, Lloyd, Adams, Berry, Brown, et al, 2011). Functional changes in the microvasculature occur with aging and precede atherosclerosis, contributing to CVD (Seals, Jablonski, & Donato, 2011). Furthermore, because of the decline in ovarian hormones during menopause, age-related impairments in endothelial function are exacerbated in postmenopausal women (PMW). However, the safety and efficacy of currently available hormone-based therapies remains controversial (Devi, Sugiguchi, Pederson, Abrassart Glodowski, & Nachtigall, 2013: Miller, Black, Brinton, Budoff, Cedars, Hodis, et al, 2009). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor produced and released by endothelial cells and implicated in the development of atherosclerosis (Best, McKenna, Holmes, & Lerman, 1999; Donato, Gano, Eskurza, Silver, Gates, Jablonski, et al, 2009; Ihling, Szombathy, Bohrmann, Brockhaus, Schaefer, & Loeffler, 2009). ET-1 binds to two receptor subtypes, ET-A and ET-B (Yanagisawa, Kurihara, Kimura, Tomobe, Kobayashi, Mitsui, et al, 1988). While both receptors are located on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and cause vasoconstriction, ET-B receptors are also located on the endothelium and cause vasodilation (Gomez-Sanchez, Cozza, Foecking, Chiou, & Ferris, 1990; Haynes, 1995; Ishikawa, Ihara, Noguchi, Mase, Mino Saeki, et al, 1994). In women, ET-1 preferentially binds to ET-B receptors compared to ET-A receptors, supporting findings of sex differences in ET-1 receptor responses and suggesting ET-B receptors are under hormonal control (Ergul, Shoemaker, Puett, & Tackett, 1998; Kellogg, Liu, & Pergola, 2001; Stauffer, Westby, Greiner, Van Guilder, & Desouza, 2010). In animal models, estradiol (E2) reduces ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction and increases ET-B receptor mRNA (Pederson, Nielsen, Mortensen, Nilas, & Ottesen, 2008). Thus, low levels of E2 in PMW may contribute to impaired vascular function through an ET-B receptor mechanism. However, the interaction between E2 and ET-1 receptor responses on regulating vascular function in women is currently unknown.
Our long-term goal is to understand the impact of ovarian hormones on the mechanisms that regulate vascular function in women to provide a better understanding of the cardiovascular efficacy of hormone therapy. This study is the first step in reaching our goal; the objective of this study is to identify the independent effect of E2 on ET-1 mediated vasomotor function in women. We propose measuring blood flow responses to local heating in the cutaneous circulation during perfusion of ET-1 receptor antagonists via microdialysis, coupled with measures of intracellular protein and receptor expression on endothelial cells and skin punch biopsies (to assess VSM cells) collected from young and PMW while controlling ovarian hormone exposure. Young women will be tested after suppressing ovarian production of E2 and progesterone with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant), and again after E2 administration; PMW, who are not using hormone therapy, will be tested before and after E2 admin. The central hypothesis is that declines in E2 impair microvascular vasodilatory function due to cellular changes in ET-B receptor expression on endothelial and VSM cells, and that E2 administration reverses these responses.
Cardiovascular Risk Factor
No to Low Endogenous Estrogen, Estradiol
University of Delaware
University of Delaware
Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-08-03T13:23:21-0400
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Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the PLACENTA. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
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