Advertisement

Topics

The Association Between Food Insecurity and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Canada: A Population-based Cohort Study

2017-08-08 14:23:21 | BioPortfolio

Summary

A pervasive and persistent finding is the health disadvantage experienced by those in food insecure households. While clear associations have been identified between food insecurity and diabetes risk factors, less is known about the relationship between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes.

The objective of this study is to investigate the association between household food insecurity and the future development of type 2 diabetes.

The investigators used data from Ontario adult respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, linked to health administrative data (n = 4,739). Food insecurity was assessed with the Household Food Security Survey Module and incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified by the Ontario Diabetes Database. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes as a function of food insecurity.

Description

Globally, there are over 200 million people living with type 2 diabetes. Aging populations, steadily increasing obesity rates, increases in sedentary behaviours, and decreases in diabetes-related mortality signal that the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes will continue to grow.

In Canada, type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions and is the 7th leading cause of mortality. Over the last decade, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Canada has increased by 72%, with 11 million Canadians currently living with diabetes or pre-diabetes. This number is expected to rise to 13.9 million (33% of Canadians) by 2026.

Much of the body of literature concerning type 2 diabetes focuses on management and control. Research that is geared towards prevention focuses heavily on the modification of individual risk behaviours, while less attention is given to the broader social determinants of increased type 2 diabetes risk.

Household food security is a broad measure of socioeconomic status that is not traditionally included in health research. Household food insecurity is experienced when there is uncertainty regarding, or disruption in, food intake or eating patterns by at least one member of a household due to financial constraints, resulting in inadequate or insecure access to food.

Food insecurity has been identified as a significant social and health problem in Canada . It was first measured in 2004, where it was estimated that 9.2% of Canadian households were food insecure. The most recent estimate from 2014 indicates that this number has risen to 12%, representing 3.2 million Canadians.

While there exists the perception that food insecurity leads to caloric restriction, food insecurity has been associated with lower nutrient intakes and consumption of a less healthy diet compared to those who are food secure. Prior evidence from cross-sectional studies has demonstrated that there is an association between food insecurity and chronic disease risk including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes.

Though clear associations have been identified between food insecurity and diabetes risk factors such as dietary consumption, weight gain, and obesity, less is known about the direct relationship between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes. Moreover, limited studies have investigated this association longitudinally in a population-based sample.

Prospective, longitudinal assessment is critical as cross-sectional studies lack the ability to infer the direction of the relationship between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes. For example, the 'health selection' hypothesis has been studied, positing that a decline in health status may precede and ultimately cause downward social mobility and a decrease in income leading to food insecurity. Consequently, this theory presents evidence for reverse causation, by which poor health may precede financial difficulties, especially in cases where early age of diagnosis, and thus longer duration of disease, might predispose individuals to being in a food insecure household.

Current estimates of the future health consequences associated with food insecurity are needed to inform health decision-makers of potential areas for upstream intervention to alleviate the burden type 2 diabetes places on the Canadian healthcare system. Data linkages provide a novel opportunity to study this relationship in a prospective, population-based sample. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes as a function of food insecurity in the Canadian population, and to investigate the extent to which this association may be mediated by obesity.

Study Design

Conditions

Type2 Diabetes

Intervention

Exposure of interest is food insecurity

Status

Completed

Source

University of Toronto

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-08-08T14:23:21-0400

Clinical Trials [2407 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Diet, Nutrient Status, and Food Insecurity

Arkansas has one of the highest rates for food insecurity and 27.7% of children in the University of Arkansas area are food insecure. In addition, more than 14% of children ages 2-4 are ob...

Food for Thought: Food Insecurity Screening in the Emergency Department

This study compares food insecurity disclosure rates in face-to-face interviews versus electronic formats, and explores caregiver preferences regarding screening modality and location, in ...

Food Resource Equity and Sustainability for Health

Food insecurity increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. American Indians (AIs) in Oklahoma are three times as likely as Whites to be food-insecure (21% vs. 7%) a...

Pii Ngima: Consequences of Water Insecurity for Maternal and Child Health

This study will implement the validated household-level water insecurity scale developed by study investigators among a cohort of postpartum women in Nyanza, Kenya and will assess a range ...

Project Powerfood: Promoting Food Security, Equity, and Health

Project Powerfood is a pilot program aimed at addressing food insecurity and food access in primary care through the implementation of a food prescription program in collaboration with a n...

PubMed Articles [16380 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

The association between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes in Canada: A population-based cohort study.

A pervasive and persistent finding is the health disadvantage experienced by those in food insecure households. While clear associations have been identified between food insecurity and diabetes risk ...

Pathways between food insecurity and glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Food insecurity is reported in approximately 28 % of individuals with diabetes in the USA and is associated with poor glycaemic and lipid control. The present study aimed to understand the direct and ...

Screening Pediatric Patients for Food Insecurity: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Comorbidities and Demographic Characteristics.

Food insecurity is a household-level economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate and nutritional food that is associated with diabetes, obesity, anxiety, depression, and b...

Factors Associated with the Separate and Concurrent Experiences of Food and Housing Insecurity Among Women Living with HIV in Canada.

People living with HIV are disproportionately affected by food and housing insecurity. We assessed factors associated with experiencing food and/or housing insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHI...

Food insecurity is associated with prediabetes and dietary differences in U.S. adults aged 20-39.

Food insecurity has been linked with lifestyle and metabolic health differences in varying populations. We sought to assess how food insecurity may have been associated with prediabetes and dietary di...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Exposure of FOOD to radioactive substances, distinguishable from FOOD IRRADIATION, a food preservation technique.

Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.

The exposure to potentially harmful factors such as trace heavy metals, chemicals, radiation, or toxins due to FOOD CONTAMINATION including DRINKING WATER contamination.

Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).

The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).

More From BioPortfolio on "The Association Between Food Insecurity and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Canada: A Population-based Cohort Study"

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Food
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...

Diabetes
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The two main types of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes In the UK, diabetes affects approximately 2.9 million people. There are a...


Searches Linking to this Trial