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This study examines the effect of 12-week strength training program with and without testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on body composition, physical function, selected biochemical markers of metabolic health, molecular parameters of training adaptation and the quality of life patients with ADAM. The investigators believe, that strength training program performed 2 times per week for 12 weeks can improve body composition (decrease fat mass and gain lean mass), muscle strength, muscle power and general quality of life in all training groups. In addition, combination TRT and strength training could help decrease fat mass, improve BMI, cardio-respiratory fitness and thus provide optimal therapy combination for hypogonadal ageing males.
The study is 3 groups controlled 12-week study to assess the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) with strength training (ST) and strength training (ST) for hypogonadal participants without testosterone replacement therapy (NON-TRT) with control healthy eugonadal group, that is also engaged in strength training.
Strength training protocol starts one week after all the pre-intervention testing. The intervention is performed at the Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (FSPORT CU) in Slovakia. The strength training protocol follows a modified resistance exercise program. The participants perform strength training sessions two times per week for 12 weeks. All training sessions are supervised and guided by professional coaches with university degree in sports training to ensure safety, technique and progression in training load, with a maximum of three participants per coach.
Each training session include 5-minute general dynamic warm-up followed by progressive strength training with exercises for the entire body. The strength exercises are performed with free weights and on machines. The training program consist of 6 exercises for upper and lower body at an intensity of 60-80% (8 - 12RM: the load that induces technique failure in eight or twelve repetitions) of one-repetition maximum and takes approximately 60 minutes. The participants are instructed to perform concentric action in 2 s and immediately after eccentric action in also 2 s. The exercises performed are: leg press, split squats, bench press, knee extension, knee flexion, seated cable rows, seated cable pull downs, dumbbell bench press, incline dumbbell bench press. Training equipment is provided by KOHI Leopoldov, Slovakia and Technogym, Italia.
Clinical and muscle cellular outcomes are collected before the intervention (pre-testing assessments) and after the intervention (post-testing assessments). Post intervention measurements start 7 days after intervention and go up to 3 weeks after intervention.
Clinical outcomes Body composition analysis is measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry using Hologic fan-beam bone densitometer Discovery QDR series. LBM(lean body mass) is measured in total body and separately for arms, legs and trunk. The changes in lower and upper body LBM are investigated separately because of differences in androgen sensitivity in leg muscles compared to neck, chest and shoulder muscles. Body weight is measured by bioimpedance scale, the height by stadiometer and waist circumference by tape. The body mass index is calculated.
Biochemical outcomes Fasting morning venous blood is taken from 8:00 am to 10:00 am. The haematological and biochemical parameters analysed are Haemoglobin, hematocrits, leucocytes, thrombocytes, glucose, urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, ALAT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, testosterone, oestrogen, LH, FSH, SHBG, albumin, bilirubin, total protein, CRP, insulin, PSA.
Physical functioning Muscle strength is measured by novel portable isometric knee dynamometer (maximal voluntary contraction of isometric knee extension, isometric knee flexion), hand grip strength dynamometry by Camry Digital Hand Dynamometer, predicted 1RM leg press from multiple repetition maximum testing. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured by The Single Stage Treadmill Walking Test on Woodway Pro Treadmill, 10-m fast walk and 10-m usual walk measured by Photocells.
Quality of life The general health status is measured by The Short Form (36) Health Survey patient-reported survey of patient health (SF-36). In addition to that clinically investigating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of aging men are measured by Aging Males' Symptom Scale (AMS).
Muscle cellular outcomes Muscle biopsies are obtain from approximately 80% of the subjects included in the study. Participants not willing to undergo biopsy are still eligible for trial participation.
With the participant in a supine position, a 5 mm Muscle Biopsy Cannula (Bergstrom-stille, Sweden) with manual suction is used to obtain muscle samples (200 mg), under local anaesthesia (Lidocain 2%,). Before the intervention the biopsy is obtained from the mid-section of the right musculus vastus lateralis, and after the intervention the biopsy is obtained 3 cm proximal to the pre-intervention biopsy.
Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of physical education and sport
Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-09-15T00:23:21-0400
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