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Cesarean deliveries are the most commonly performed surgery in the United States and account for 32.9% of all births.8,9 The ASA recommends the use of neuraxial opioids of post-cesarean analgesia partly because respiratory depression in the obstetric population, as measured by intermittent respiratory rate and pulse oximetry, is reported to be low (0-1.2%).10,11 Respiratory depression lacks a standard definition,12 but the most sensitive means of detecting respiratory depression is hypercapnia.1,3 Two recent studies using continuous hypercapnia (>50mmHg PaCO2) monitoring demonstrated higher rates of respiratory depression (17.8-37%) in healthy, non-obese women receiving intrathecal opioids for post-cesarean analgesia.13,14 In addition, supplemental opioids are required in the majority of women receiving intrathecal morphine and may increase the risk of respiratory depression.11,14 Anesthesiologists debate whether neuraxial opioids or intravenous patient controlled opioid analgesia (PCA) are the safest practice for postoperative analgesia in obese parturients following cesarean delivery. The ASA recommendations to employ neuraxial analgesia post-cesarean delivery does not differentiate between non-obese and obese women who now make up 30.3% in US women of child-bearing age.2 Obesity has been described as a risk factor for respiratory depression in those receiving opioids via any route of opioid administration,11,15, 17 but whether obesity itself is the risk factor or associated co-morbidities such as sleep apnea is debated.
Studies are conflicting whether intrathecal opioids or patient controlled intravenous opioids cause more respiratory depression. Several studies have documented the incidence of respiratory depression with IV PCA; the rates range from 0.19% to 5.2%, which are equivalent or higher than those reported for intrathecal opioids. (Hagle 16). Dalchow et al. demonstrated higher rates of hypercapnia in patients receiving intrathecal opioid compared with those receiving intravenous opioid via patient controlled analgesia in nonobese women following cesarean delivery. (Dalchow)
The Topological Oscillation Search with Kinematical Analysis (TOSCA) monitor allows a noninvasive method to measure transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels, with relative accuracy compared to arterial carbon dioxide monitoring.4-7 No studies have examined transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels in obese women following cesarean delivery using any form of postoperative analgesia. We propose a randomized controlled trial using continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring to evaluate the degree of respiratory depression in obese women receiving neuraxial opioid compared to intravenous opioid via PCA for post-cesarean analgesia.
Two studies have demonstrated high rates of hypercapnia in non-obese women following administration of intrathecal morphine for cesarean delivery in the postpartum period. (Dalchow, Bauchat) Dalchow et al. demonstrated higher rates of hypercapnia in women receiving intrathecal diamorphine than intravenous morphine delivered via patient controlled analgesia. It is unclear whether intrathecal morphine causes more or less respiratory depression than intravenous opioid delivered via patient-controlled analgesia in obese women.
This study will add to the understanding of respiratory function in the immediate postpartum period in obese women using opioids via intrathecal or intravenous routes. This study will better inform guidelines for the postpartum analgesic route of choice in the obese obstetric population and allow us to make recommendations for the detection and prevention of respiratory depression after opioid administration in the obstetric population.
Objective is to examine the transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels in obese women using either intrathecal morphine or intravenous patient-controlled hydromorphone for post-cesarean analgesia.
The hypothesis is carbon dioxide levels will be significantly higher in obese women receiving intrathecal morphine versus obese women receiving intravenous patient controlled intravenous hydromorphone.
Intrathecal Morphine, Intravenous hydromorphone
Prentice Womens Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2017-09-15T00:23:21-0400
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Intrathecal (IT) opioids are commonly administered with local anesthetic during spinal anesthesia for post-Cesarean delivery analgesia. Traditionally, IT morphine has been used but the use...
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A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; ankylosing SPONDYLITIS; and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (PAIN, POSTOPERATIVE).
Pain during the period after surgery.
Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.
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Depression is a serious mental health condition, where sad feelings carry on for weeks or months and interfere with your life. The symptoms include feeling unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings), loosing interest in lif...