Anti-secretory Factor as a Treatment for Adults With Severe Traumatic Head Injury

2018-03-08 22:39:10 | BioPortfolio


Introduction/Background Brain swelling/brain edema can occur due to many pathologies of the brain, such as infections, ischemia and trauma.

The edema can be either primarily intra-cellular or extra-cellular. The mechanisms by which edema arise are not fully known but it is proposed that inside the damaged brain, fluid will pass over the blood-brain barrier of the vessels into the extra-cellular space. The accumulation of fluid will lead to an increase in distance between the cell and its closest capillary, which may lead to energy failure and intra-cellular edema. The extra volume of the fluid leads to increased intracranial pressure, which in turn leads to an increase in blood pressure, aggravating the edema. In addition to the physiological changes that occur, the edema will be increased by the immunological response to the tissue damage with release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that give rise to both extra- and intra-cellular edema.

Today, no treatment has been proven efficient against traumatic brain edema. AF - anti-secretory factor is a 41 kDa protein that exists in humans and most animals. It was discovered due to its ability to inhibit experimental diarrhea.

AF has been proven to have an effect on Mb Menière and glaucoma. In animal models, AF has been proven efficient in reducing increased intracranial pressure caused by trauma and virus infection in the brain.

Salovum®, an egg yolk powder enriched in AF, is registered in the European Union as a medical food.

Methods: 5 adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury will be included in the trial via next of kin consent.

Medical interventions are protocol based. The protocol includes first, second and third treatment levels.

Patients included in the trial, will receive two micro-dialysis (MD) catheters in addition to standard treatment. One catheter will be placed in a separate burr hole close to the ICP and LICOX catheter, the other MD catheter will be placed in vicinity of the damaged barin tissue.

Patients will receive Salovum® 6 hours after trial inclusion. Patient dosage is 1g/kg body weight/24 hours, divided into 6 doses and administered orally, via tubing every 4 hours for 5 consecutive days.

Objective: Primary end-point is to investigate if Salovum® has a beneficiary effect on ICP.

Secondary endpoints are to investigate if Salovum® has a beneficiary effect on treatment intensity levels (TIL), brain-oxygenation, microdialysis bio-chemistry and cytokine expression in plasma and microdialysate.


MD will be analysed bedside hourly for patient management, and the remaining MD samples will be frozen in -70° C for later analysis of cytokines.

An extra blood sample will be drawn twice daily, blood will be centrifuged and plasma will be frozen in -70° C for later analysis of cytokines.

Study Design


Head Trauma




Not yet recruiting


Skane University Hospital

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-03-08T22:39:10-0500

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Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)

Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.

Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.

Secondary headache attributed to TRAUMA of the HEAD and/or the NECK.

Deformity of the hip characterized by enlargement and deformation of the FEMUR HEAD and FEMUR NECK, often with associated changes in the ACETABULUM. These changes may be secondary to other diseases (e.g. LEGG-PERTHES DISEASE; ARTHRITIS; HIP DISLOCATION, CONGENITAL) or TRAUMA.

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