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Hepatitis is known to induce severe liver diseases. The evaluation of the severity of liver cirrhosis is very important for the selection of appropriate treatment plan and the monitoring of patient response to treatment, accurate staging of liver fibrosis is critical because it determines the indication of antiviral treatment and prognosis of patients with chronic viral hepatitis, DWI is a particularly appealing method for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis because it is easy to implement and process, without the need for contrast agents. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been shown to be a promising marker of fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Introduction Hepatitis is known to induce severe liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer which are serious threats to public health. The evaluation of the severity of liver cirrhosis is very important for the selection of appropriate treatment plan and the monitoring of patient response to treatment .
Noninvasive Child-Pugh classification is a common method to assess liver function, treatment outcome and prognosis in patients with chronic liver cirrhosis .
Accurate staging of liver fibrosis (commonly determined by liver biopsy) is critical because it determines the indication of antiviral treatment and prognosis of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. For example, patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of end-stage liver disease, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma and are less likely to respond to antiviral therapy [8-9].
However, liver biopsy is relatively invasive, limited by sample size, and difficult to repeat. Thus, noninvasive tools to assess the degree of fibrosis of the whole liver are urgently needed. Several noninvasive MRI techniques have been investigated for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) [20-24], MR Elastography , and perfusion-weighted imaging [26-27].
DWI is a particularly appealing method for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis because it is easy to implement and process, without the need for contrast agents. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been shown to be a promising marker of fibrosis and cirrhosis by several independent investigators [20-24].
Recently magnetic resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) has become another noninvasive approach to assess liver cirrhosis by analyzing the changes of water diffusion based on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) .
Several studies showed that ADC values of cirrhotic liver were correlated with the results of Child-Pugh classification for the evaluation of the severity of liver cirrhosis [4-7].
However, whether ADC values of cirrhotic liver are correlated with the results of Child-Pugh classification, it remains unclear. The DWI is a specific MRI technique that evaluates the motion of, mainly, water protons in the tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is the most frequently used DWI measure and provides useful information about inflammation, perfusion and local cell breakdown. The ADC map is calculated based on exponential fitting of DWI over multiple b-values and is used to measure diffusion quantitatively. Prior studies have shown that in liver fibrosis water diffusion may be diminished by extracellular collagen fibers and proteoglycans, thus, reduced ADC values have been reported for liver fibrosis. [10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,20].
These findings suggest DWI could be a useful imaging technique to evaluate fibrosis. In more recent studies, researchers examined the relationship between the stages of hepatic fibrosis and ADC values [14,15,16,19,20].
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-03-13T00:02:09-0400
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
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