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The investigators hypothesise that empagliflozin 10mg daily will have haemodynamic, cardiac, and renal benefits compared to placebo over 36 weeks in heart failure patients with type 2 diabetes, leading to measurable improvements in clinical measures of cardiac structure and function (LVESVI, and LV strain) as well as renal blood flow.
The results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial on CVD outcomes and heart failure hospitalisation suggests that empagliflozin works quickly to lessen CVD mortality and reduce heart failure hospitalisations in patients with diabetes and existing cardiovascular disease. The lack of effect on non-fatal MI and stroke would suggest limited impact on atherothrombotic mechanisms. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which empagliflozin is acting in more detail, in order that the drug can be more widely targeted at patient groups that might benefit most; particularly patients with heart failure and diabetes (as discussed in the rationale).
The investigators have hypothesised, in a detailed published review (3), that the benefit derives from the specific effects of sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition on renal sodium and glucose handling, leading to both diuresis and improvements in diabetes-related maladaptive renal arteriolar responses. These haemodynamic and renal effects are likely to be beneficial in patients with clinical or subclinical cardiac dysfunction. The net result of these processes is an improvement in cardiac systolic and diastolic function and, thereby, a lower risk of heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) and sudden cardiac death.
The investigators have therefore designed the present trial to perform a comprehensive clinical trial to interrogate in detail the effects of empagliflozin on specific pathways (inclusive of cardiac and renal effects) in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure.
Empagliflozin 10 MG, Placebo Oral Tablet
Queen Elizabeth University Hospital
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde
Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-04-09T06:38:17-0400
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A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...