Evaluation of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in Patients Who Speak Two Languages Fluently

2018-04-19 10:03:12 | BioPortfolio

Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-04-19T10:03:12-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.

Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.

An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive language (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the frontal lobe (Broca's area and adjacent cortical and white matter regions). The deficits range from almost complete muteness to a reduction in the fluency and rate of speech. CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS (in particular INFARCTION, MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY) are a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp478-9)

Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.

A syndrome characterized by the onset of isolated language dysfunction in otherwise normal children (age of onset 4-7 years) and epileptiform discharges on ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Seizures, including atypical absence (EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), complex partial (EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL), and other types may occur. The electroencephalographic abnormalities and seizures tend to resolve by puberty. The language disorder may also resolve although some individuals are left with severe language dysfunction, including APHASIA and auditory AGNOSIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp749-50; J Child Neurol 1997 Nov;12(8):489-495)

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