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The goal of this study is to review the etiology, diagnostic criteria, complications and outcome of acute pediatric compartment syndrome identified at The Children's Hospital of Western Ontario (CHWO) . Follow up with patients treated for compartment syndrome by fasciotomy will assist in determining the long term effects of compartment syndrome and surgical procedures on the patient quality of life and return to level of function of the affected limb.
Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is caused by elevated pressure within a closed osseofascial compartment, leading to microvascular compromise and cell death. Without urgent decompression of the compartment, significant functional impairment and loss of limb may result. Compartment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose as there are a wide variety of causes, clinical manifestations, and no reliable objective test. The diagnosis in a pediatric population is further complicated when the patient has a decreased ability to communicate verbally, and/or is non-compliant with physical examination. CS pathophysiology indicates that such an increase in compartmental pressure leads to the loss of microvascular perfusion (ischemia), restricting oxygen and nutrient delivery to vital tissues, ultimately causing the permanent functional and physical loss of the limb. The basic principle of fasciotomy is the full and adequate decompression of the compartment of interest and is performed secondary to compartment syndrome. This can be achieved via a single or double incision approach with both methods appearing to be equally effective in reducing intercompartment pressure (ICP). Subsequent skin closure and/or coverage is performed only when all muscle groups are deemed viable. However, there are a number of coverage techniques described without a clear systematic approach based on objective outcomes. Currently, the only available treatment consists of restoration of blood flow by releasing the pressure by slicing open the skin and connective tissue overlying the muscle in a procedure called fasciotomy. This crude method may result in long-term muscle weakness and disfigurement, and does not treat the ischemic damage already caused by the trauma. Pressure release can be achieved via a single or double incision approach with both methods appearing to be equally effective in reducing ICP. Subsequent skin closure and/or coverage is performed only when all muscle groups are deemed viable. However, there are a number of coverage techniques described without a clear systematic approach based on objective outcomes.
Not yet recruiting
Lawson Health Research Institute
Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-06-05T22:52:10-0400
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