Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Excessive eating of energy-dense foods and obesity are risk factors for a range of cancers. There are programs to reduce intake of these foods and weight loss, but the effects of the programs rarely last. This project tests whether altering the value of cancer-risk foods can create lasting change, and uses neuroimaging to compare the efficacy of two programs to engage the valuation system on a neural level. Results will establish the pathways through which the programs work and suggest specific treatments for individuals based on a personalized profile.
Obesity and intake of certain foods increase cancer risk, but the most common treatment (behavioral weight loss programs) rarely produces lasting weight loss and eating behavior change, apparently because caloric restriction increases the reward value of food and prompts energy-sparing adaptations. Interventions that reduce the implicit valuation of cancer-risk foods (e.g., red meats, refined sugar) may be more effective. Emerging data suggest that behavioral response training and cognitive reappraisal training reduce valuation of such foods, which leads to decrease intake of these foods and weight loss. Internalized incentive value is reflected in a ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) / orbitofrontal cortex valuation system, which encodes the implicit reward value of food and is central to a reinforcement cycle that perpetuates unhealthy eating. Thus, the vmPFC valuation system is a promising target for intervention because changes to the system might disrupt the unhealthy reinforcement cycle. Interestingly, various interventions influence the vmPFC through distinct pathways. Behavioral training alters motor input to valuation regions, whereas cognitive training relies on lateral prefrontal "top-down" regions. The proposed translational neuroscience experiment will compare the efficacy with which two novel treatments cause lasting change in food valuation, and whether a composite of theory-based baseline individual differences in relevant processes (such as response tendencies and cognitive styles) moderate treatment effects. We will randomize 300 overweight/obese adults who are at risk for eating- and obesity-related cancers to behavioral response training toward healthy foods and away from cancer-risk foods, a cognitive reappraisal intervention focused on cancer-risk foods, or non-food inhibitory control training. Aim 1 compares the efficacy and mechanisms of action of these two interventions to reduce valuation of cancer-risk foods relative to the active control condition, using neural, behavioral, self-report, and physiological measures of the process and outcomes. Aim 2 is to establish the temporal pattern and durability of the effects across time; food intake and habits, body fat, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio will be measured pre, post, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Aim 3 uses machine learning to build and validate a low-cost, easy-to-administer composite that predicts whether and for how long an individual is likely to respond to intervention, and to which treatment. We hypothesize that self-report measures specifically related to valuation (e.g., willingness-to-pay) and to intervention-specific pathways to valuation (e.g., behavioral response tendencies, cognitive style) will predict differential response. Discovering these individual differences will provide a practical, low-cost tool to help interventionists "match" a given person to an effective treatment for that person. This project is very innovative because no study has directly compared the distinct and common effects of these treatments on valuation, used brain imaging to study the mechanism of effects, tested whether these interventions produce a lasting change in food valuation and body fat, or built and validated a composite that moderates response.
Overweight and Obesity
Devaluing energy-dense foods for cancer-control
University of Oregon, Lewis Integrative Sciences Building
University of Oregon
Published on BioPortfolio: 2018-06-20T02:25:11-0400
In this study, the investigators will vary the proportions of high- and low-energy-dense foods served to preschool children at all meals and snacks during three 5-day periods. In the three...
The high worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as metabolic and disease consequences, are well-documented. The positive energy balance underlying obesity is attributable t...
The purpose of this randomized controlled study using a crossover design is to investigate the main effect of portion size and food type (low-energy dense vs. high-energy dense) on caloric...
Participants will be matched with either their friend or an unfamiliar peer who is the same gender and about the same age. Participants will have 45 minutes of free-play in an experimental...
The current epidemic of obesity relates to the transition from traditional to industrialised diets. The present project investigates the effect on body energy of recommending the consumpti...
Offering large portions of high energy dense (HED) foods increases overall energy intake in children, a potentially important contributing factor to childhood overweight and obesity. Packaging offers ...
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food intake (considering the nature, extent, and purpose of food processing) during pregnancy and overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes...
The aim of this article is to describe the current level of knowledge about the relationship between overweight and genomic instability. The relationship between overweight / obesity and cancer has be...
: Obesity increases the risk for aggressive and fatal prostate cancer (PCa). The bioactive compound silibinin has been researched for its chemopreventative properties and may benefit obese or overweig...
Recent studies have documented an association between overweight and obesity and certain cancers, as well as an increased incidence of obesity-associated cancers (OACs) in younger individuals. However...
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Foods and beverages that are prepared by using microorganisms to convert their components into various FERMENTATION end products. Some pickled foods are considered fermented foods as their pickling results from the microbial production of LACTIC ACID.
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...