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- Feeding and growth during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index.
- The Cholesterol content of human milk is 6-fold greater than that of the standard infant formulas.
- Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity and adulthood obesity.
- Previous guidelines recommended that infants who are exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months of life, with particular solid foods gradually introduced from 6 months associated with lower childhood fat mass.
- The stated reason for discouraging introduction of solids to infant before 4 months include the risk of excessive weight gain, vulnerability of the gut to infection and increased susceptibility to the development of allergic disease.
- Infants whose dietary pattern was most similar to feeding guidelines, with high frequencies of fresh fruit and vegetables, home prepared foods and breast milk, gained weight and skin fold thickness more rapidly from 6 to12 months than other infants, independent of milk feeding, age of introduction of solids and maternal factors.
- Exclusively breastfed infants had significantly higher Total Cholesterol (TC) level and Low density Lipoprotein level (LDL) and lower High density lipoprotein level (HDL) as compared to mixed-fed infants in the first 6 months of life.
- Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a protective effect against some risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life, as those who exclusively breastfed had lower level of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol conc., higher level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and lower LDL/HDL ratio than those bottle fed.
- Early weaning is related to rapid weight gain in infancy, and this may have implication for childhood obesity.
- Vaginally delivered children are colonised with bacterial strains from the mothers' vagina during delivery in contrast to children delivered by CS, and these differences seem to persist throughout infancy.
- The gut microbiota may have a role in energy harvesting, hence inoculation with maternal microbiota through vaginal delivery may be protective for childhood overweight compared with delivery by CS.
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-04-08T10:41:21-0400
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The psychiatric, sociological and psychological study and treatment of the developing child with emphasis on preventive or prophylactic measures focused on the familial, educational and socio-environmental milieu of the child.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
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