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- Emergence agitation is seen in around 68% after nasal surgeries. Agitated patients needs more staff and nurses to control their abnormal movement which leads to self extubation , removal of catheters and bruises in the extremities.
- Dexmedetomidine, ketamine, propofol intravenous infusion and other agents was used to prevent EA . Recently, ketodex is found to reduce the incidence and severity of EA .
- We aim to compare single bolus dose of Ketodex Versus Ketofol For Prevention Of Emergence Agitation in adults undergoing nasal surgeries.
The incidence of emergence agitation (EA) after nasal surgeries is relatively high , it is reported to be 68% (1).The precise mechanism is not known. Awake extubation after nasal surgeries is preferred as the airway may be contaminated by blood , and the nasal airway may be blocked by surgical packs that causes sense of suffocation. Awake extubation and nasal pack is a trigger to emergence agitation(2).
Emergene agitation (EA) is harmfull to the patient and the staff, it Characterized by disorientation, confusion, abnormal violent movement that may result in serious complication and morbidity(3). It develops early with the recovery from general anesthesia(4). Although agitation is more observed in pediatrics but its incidence in adults reach up to 21.4% (5).
Different medication agents such as anesthetic drugs, benzodiazepine and α2 agonist was proved to attenuate the EA with different efficacies(6).
Dexmedetomidine is a selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist. It has sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, analgesic and sympatholytic properties. It was proved to reduce the EA in children(7). However there was few data about its effect in reducing the agitation in adult after general anesthesia(8).
Propofol is short acting hypnotic and sedative agent. It is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia(9). Previous studies proved that propofol was effective in preventing EA (10,11) and depends on the time of administration(12).
Ketamine is N-methyl- D-asparate receptor antagonist, it has anesthetic, sedative and analgesic effect(13).
Ketofol is a combination of low dose ketamine with propofol , it has been used for sedation and analgesia. The effect of this combination was supposed to produce less toxicity compared to each drug alone by decreasing the required doses(14).
Ketodex is combined low dose of ketamine and dexmedetomidine, it was used for sedation , this combination decrease some of the pitfalls occurring when use dexmedetomidine as a sole agent(15).
Most EA studies was done in pediatric. To our knowledge there was no previous studies report the effect of bolus dose of ketodex versus ketofol on the incidence and prevention of EA after nasal surgeries in adults. This study aimed to compare single bolus dose of Ketodex Versus Ketofol For Prevention Of Emergence Agitation In adults Undergoing nasal surgeries.
ketodex , ketofol
Faculty of Medicine
Active, not recruiting
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-07-18T10:31:14-0400
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A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
A pre-emergence, selective herbicide for the control of wild oats in various crops.
A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
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