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To examine the differences in the capacity to activate microglia in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) compared to age-comparable cognitively normal subjects and younger healthy controls.
The primary outcome is Microglia Activation Reserve Index (MARI) (calculated in the parietal region of interest (ROIs)) in AD patients compared to elderly controls. The researchers will use 7 AD and 7 comparably aged cognitively normal successfully scanned subjects to calculate the microglial activation reserve index. The expectations are significant differences between the two groups suggesting altered reactivity of the microglia in AD. The result would be an exciting one suggesting at least one mechanism by which some patients with significant amyloid load have progressive dementia while comparable others are either cognitively normal or have stable Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). It will also suggest avenues for intervention in amyloid positive MCIs to prevent progression to Alzheimer's dementia. The exploratory analysis will include:
1. Effects of aging on MARI: The researchers will evaluate the effects of aging on MARI. Comparisons will be made for MARI between cognitively normal elderly and the 8 healthy individuals to whom the investigators applied this protocol in an earlier study. The reactivity of microglia is reported to change with age and so the investigators expect MARI to change in the cognitively normal elderly. However, the expectation is that the differences between the young and elderly cognitively normal subjects to be small relative to the comparison of AD and elderly normal controls.
2. Effects of amyloid on MARI: The researchers will look at the relationship of regional and global amyloid load to MARI. The presence of a relationship suggests that one of the reasons for altered microglial reactivity might be interactions of microglia with pathologic amyloid.
3. Effects of MARI on cognition: The researchers will explore whether MARI would correlate with the measure of disease stage, with higher MARIs associated with worse neuropsychological score and more severe disease. The researchers will look for correlations between MARI and the individual neuropsychological scores. This would determine if disease severity is correlated with microglial activation reserve.
Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-08-19T19:46:33-0400
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Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
A carbamate-derived reversible CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR that is selective for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and is used for the treatment of DEMENTIA in ALZHEIMER DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE.
A biochemical phenomenon in which misfolded proteins aggregate either intra- or extracellularly. Triggered by factors such as MUTATION, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, and environmental stress, it is generally associated with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PARKINSON DISEASE; HUNTINGTON DISEASE; and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...