Low Dose Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Analgesia After Total Knee Arthroplasty

2019-09-17 02:47:44 | BioPortfolio


This study evaluates continous infusion of low-dose ketamine during intraoperative and postoperative periods at three different doses to provide postoperative analgesia in total knee arthroplasty cases. Patients enrolled randomly into one of 2, 4, 6 μg / kg / min perioperative ketamine groups. All groups were given spinal anesthesia and intravenous patient controlled anesthesia. Ketamine was started when sensorial block reached T10 dermatome level before the skin incision. By the end of the operation, in all groups, ketamine infusions were reduced by half doses. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia device was set to 2 mg bolus morphine with no basal infusion for 48 hours during the postoperative period.


Multimodal analgesia, which involves the administration of two or more analgesic agents targeting different levels of pain pathways, is used to improve pain control while also to reduce opioid use and related side effects. Pain can be treated at various neurophysiological levels, including peripheral, spinal and cortical targets. One of the agents used in the multimodal analgesia technique is ketamine.

Ketamine acts on the central nervous system (CNS) and has local anesthetic effect. Ketamine is an N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, which appears to be the main mechanism of anesthetic and analgesic action at CNS and spinal cord receptors. Other mechanisms of action of ketamine include the interaction with opioid receptors, particularly mu and kappa receptors. Another effect is that it has local anesthetic effect in high doses. Studies have shown that ketamine is an effective agent in the treatment of postoperative pain. Continuous infusion of low-dose ketamine after total knee arthroplasty significantly reduced morphine consumption, and provided early rehabilitation without increasing side effects. However, when these studies are considered, there is no information about the optimal dose of ketamine that reduces opioid consumption at the highest level.

In our study, continuous infusion of low-dose ketamine at different doses was planned to provide postoperative analgesia. Therefore, our first aim in this study was to find out the optimal dose that reduced morphine consumption for postoperative analgesia after TKA with continuous ketamine infusion at different doses. The secondary objectives are to evaluate early and late period pain, side effects, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and recovery.

Study Design


Postoperative Pain


Mustafa Kemal University Medical School




Mustafa Kemal University

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-09-17T02:47:44-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; ankylosing SPONDYLITIS; and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (PAIN, POSTOPERATIVE).

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A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.

Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.

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