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Subclinical Nail Involvement in Relevant Skin Diseases

2019-09-23 04:51:46 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Onychopathies constitute one of the major challenges faced by a dermatologist in terms of its early detection and diagnosis .

Many disorders can affect the nails, including deformity and dystrophy, infections, and ingrown toenails. Infections can involve any part of the nail and may or may not change the nail's appearance. Most nail infections are fungal (onychomycosis), but bacterial and viral infections occur .

Description

Nails are characteristically affected in skin diseases such as psoriasis (speckling, psoriatic oil spot, crumbling nails, pachyonychia) ,lichen( anonychia, dystrophy) ,alopecia areata (speckling, trachyonychia, longitudinal grooves, leukonychia), atopic dermatitis (shiny nails, transverse grooves, speckling, paronychia) and other diseases.

Nail disorders are assessed by clinical inspection, dermatoscopy , microbiological (including mycological) testing, and histopathological examination by nail biopsy .

Utility of dermoscope as a tool for detection is increasing by the day and its use in onychopathies needs to be explored .

Nail dermoscopy has initially been used for the assessment of nail pigmentation . But its utilization has expanded for the diagnosis of all nail disorders; it became a routine diagnostic instrument, as its reveals helpful information. Dermoscopy can be applied to all visible parts of the nail unit, and even the nail matrix can be studied, in conjunction with intraoperative methods .

Nail dermoscopy offers many advantages. Mostly, it enhances visible nail features; however, it can also help identify additional unique and fascinating features, not visible to the naked eye. It is practical, noninvasive and still opens up a second microscopic level of inspection. It contributes toward confirmation of diagnosis and assessment of treatment response as well as prognosis.

In a cross-sectional study to detect signs of subclinical nail involvement in 68 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, Forty-six patients showed nail dermoscopic findings. Coarse pits, onycholysis, oil drop sign and splinter hemorrhages were seen .

To the best of the investigator's knowledge, no available studies in the literature evaluate subclinical nail affection in skin diseases as lichen planus, atopic dermatitis and auto immune bullous diseases. Hence, with the help of a dermoscope,early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can be instituted.

Study Design

Conditions

Nail Diseases

Intervention

Dermoscope

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

Assiut University

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-09-23T04:51:46-0400

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Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.

Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.

An inflammatory reaction involving the folds of the skin surrounding the fingernail. It is characterized by acute or chronic purulent, tender, and painful swellings of the tissues around the nail, caused by an abscess of the nail fold. The pathogenic yeast causing paronychia is most frequently Candida albicans. Saprophytic fungi may also be involved. The causative bacteria are usually Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Streptococcus. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p271)

Separation of nail plate from the underlying nail bed. It can be a sign of skin disease, infection (such as ONYCHOMYCOSIS) or tissue injury.

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