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Prevalence of smoking among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) is six-fold that of the general US adult population. The mortality rate of opioid-dependent smokers is four times that of opioid-dependent nonsmokers, and their response to smoking cessation interventions is notoriously poor. A national policy of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes has the potential to be an effective method of reducing tobacco use prevalence, dependence, and related adverse health outcomes. Controlled trials in the general smoker population have demonstrated that switching smokers to low nicotine content cigarettes results in reductions in cigarettes per day (CPD), dependence and tobacco toxicant exposure, with few adverse consequences. We believe that the impact of reduced nicotine standards on use of combusted cigarettes in this population will be moderated considerably by other tobacco market conditions including (1) availability of alternative sources of non-combusted nicotine, and (2) whether these alternatives are available under conditions that optimize their appeal. We hypothesize the same for other vulnerable populations as well, but achieving significant reductions in use of combusted cigarettes in smokers with OUD seems especially unlikely in the absence of readily available and appealing alternative sources of non-combusted nicotine.
The goal of the proposed trial is to experimentally model whether increased availability and appeal of an alternative, non-combusted source of nicotine (e-cigarettes) will enhance the effectiveness of a reduced nicotine standard for cigarettes in smokers with OUD. Additionally, we will test whether allowing participants to personalize the favor of the e-liquid alters any moderating effects their availability may have on tobacco cigarette smoking.
Daily smokers who are receiving methadone or buprenorphine treatment will be recruited at University of Vermont and Johns Hopkins University.
We will study two research cigarettes referred to here as RC1 and RC2. One of these cigarettes will be a normal nicotine content cigarette and the other will be a reduced nicotine content cigarette. We will study two e-cigarette conditions referred to here as EC1 and EC2. Both e-cigarette conditions will involve the same commercially available devices and same nicotine-containing e-liquid, but in one condition that e-liquid will be available only in tobacco flavor while in the other condition that e-liquid will be available in multiple flavors from which participants can choose based on personal taste preference. Participants will be assigned to one of the following four study conditions: (1) RC1 only; (2) RC2 only; (3) RC2 + EC1; (4) RC2 + EC2.
Participants will be asked to use only their assigned study products for 16 weeks. Outcome measures include total CPD, cigarette demand assessed by behavioral economics-based purchase tasks, craving, withdrawal, psychiatric symptoms, breath carbon monoxide (CO), biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure, brain function and structure, and airway inflammation (fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath [FeNO]).
Tobacco Use Disorder
Cigarettes with varying nicotine content, E-Cigarettes
Not yet recruiting
University of Vermont
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-09-23T04:51:49-0400
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Electronic devices that are designed to provide NICOTINE in the form of an inhaled aerosol. They typically are made in the shape of CIGARETTES in order to simulate the experience of CIGARETTE SMOKING.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The act of inhaling and exhaling vapors produced from ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES.
The SMOKING of CIGARETTES.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
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