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The aim of this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pentoxifylline, the novel phosphodiesterase inhibitor, as an adjunctive to risperidone in alleviating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
This study aims to examine the efficacy of pentoxifylline, the novel phosphodiesterase inhibitor, in a sample of moderately ill outpatients with early-course schizophrenia. The investigators hypothesize that as compared to placebo a 2-month treatment with pentoxifylline in 120 volunteers with early-course schizophrenia will result in a more significant improvement in psychopathology (primary outcome) and cognitive symptoms (secondary outcome). In addition, cytokine plasma levels will be used as another secondary outcome measure to see if treatment-induced changes in total PANSS score are associated with changes in cytokine levels.
there is some evidence for the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) signaling system in pathophysiology of schizophrenia making this system a potential target for therapeutic agents. PDEs are a family of enzymes that hydrolyse cyclic nucleotides and thus play a key role in regulating intracellular levels of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylated xanthine derivative and a PDE inhibitor that is FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with intermittent claudication on the basis of chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs. It is known to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase erythrocyte flexibility or deformability, and reduce blood viscosity. The rationale for its use in schizophrenia is that it competitively inhibits PDEs, resulting in increased cAMP levels, the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), the inhibition of IL and TNF-α synthesis, and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, there is growing evidence to support the inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia, the investigators will also explore whether cytokine levels mediate the response from pentoxifylline treatment.
Placebo oral tablet, Pentoxifylline
Faculty of Medicine
Sadat City University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-09-24T05:27:36-0400
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A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.
An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia.
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