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Acute kidney injury is a complex clinical syndrome,associated with high short and long- term morbidity and mortality in critical ill patients.Acute kidney injury outcomes may vary from a complete resolution to a partial or incomplete recovery of renal function leading to increased mortality,prolonged hospitalization and risk of chronic comorbidities .
The precise mechanism of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease transition is complex and not completely understood,especially in humans .Acute kidney injury outcomes depend upon the balance of adaptive and maladaptive repair.
Acute kidney injury is a life threatening and disabling complication of critical illness encountered in 25 -50%h of intensive care unit admission.Acute kidney injury is a complex clinical syndrome,associated with high short and long- term morbidity and mortality in critical ill patients.
Acute kidney injury outcomes may vary from a complete resolution to a partial or incomplete recovery of renal function leading to increased mortality,prolonged hospitalization and risk of chronic comorbidities like cardiovascular disease,chronic kidney disease and subsequent progression to end stage renal disease.Several studies have suggested a causal link between acute kidney injury and the consequent development of chronic kidney disease.the severity,frequency and duration of acute kidney injury are key factors in this process.
The precise mechanism of transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease is complex and not completely understood,especially in humans and several pathways have been proposed. Different animal studies have used ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic injuries to investigate the pathophysiologic event involved in acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease transition ,mainly focusing in the development of specific histological changes .Acute kidney injury outcomes depend, at the tissue level,upon the balance of adaptive and maladaptive repair. An adaptive response to injury usually leads to renal recovery with a complete resolution of pathological changes during acute kidney injury episode(resolution of inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration of tubular cells,decrease in biomarkers of injury )without long term consequences .However,severe and repeated injury can result in a maladaptive repair,characterized by a permanent reduction in kidney function associated with significant structural changes (persistent expression of pro-fibrotic factors and development of interstitial fibrosis, delayed resolution of inflammation,permanent cell cycle arrest of tubular cells, microvascular rarefaction,renin angiotensin system activation).
The incidence rate of renal progression following acute kidney injury has been estimated to be 4.9 events /100 patient-year and is particularly increase in elderly.
Acute Kidney Injury
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-09-27T06:30:39-0400
Acute kidney injury is a common complication of critical illness and is associated with high morbidity and mortality .Acute kidney injury is a syndrome that is characterized by a rapid dec...
The study evaluates how outcome varies among critically ill patients with and without acute kidney injury. Data from the Swedish Intensive care register and other Swedish national register...
Acute renal injury is a common complication of critical illness. Drug induced renal insult compounds the degree of injury in many patients, and a great deal of research has focused on prev...
Patients presented with unexplained elevated serum creatinine including vast varieties of acute or chronic kidney disease. Renal biopsy may include acute and chronic interstitial nephritis...
Acute kidney injury is more frequent and the mortality rate would be as high as 50-60% when the renal replacement therapy was needed. Many studies about the timing of start and discontinua...
Acute kidney injury is a common occurrence on the intensive care unit and is associated with incremental risk of death and chronic kidney disease. Renal replacement therapy has become an essential too...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often underdiagnosed due to several limitations of the renal marker creatinine. Tubular urinary biomarkers may substantially contribute to diagnose acute kidney injury AKI...
Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality, and is the most frequent complication encountered in patients residing in the intensive care unit. Although renal replacement therapy (RRT) is th...
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for end-stage renal failure. Unfortunately, donor organ shortages prevent many individuals receiving a renal transplant and there is a need to increas...
Macrophage polarization is a major contributing factor in acute kidney injury (AKI). We aim to determine its biomarker value in differentiating etiologic causes of various intrinsic renal AKI. A total...
Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, ACUTE).
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
A severe stage of acute renal insufficiency, characterized by the sudden decrease in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min, sometime to less than 1 to 2 ml per min. It is usually associated with OLIGURIA; EDEMA; and increase in BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and serum CREATININE concentrations.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experi...