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Many women in Sub-Saharan Africa get malaria while they are pregnant. Plasmodium falciparum is a parasite that can cause malaria. Placental malaria (PM) caused by P. falciparum can cause anemia or death in first-time mothers. In infants, it can cause low birth weight, premature birth, or other problems. Some women don t show any signs of having PM. This makes it harder to know if they might have it. Researchers want to learn how much the seasons affect the number of women and infants who get PM as well as the severity of the disease. To do this, they are going to test women and babies who visit a health center in Guinea.
To learn the seasonal burden of P. falciparum infection in pregnant women and otherwise healthy infants.
Pregnant women ages 18 years and older (or emancipated minors) and infants ages 6-12 months.
Participants will include women and infants who visit the health center in Maf(SqrRoot)(Registered Trademark)rinyah, Guinea, for routine care. They can take part only once per pregnancy.
For screening, mothers will talk about their medical history. They will talk about their past pregnancies and their current pregnancy. They will answer questions about where they live and what they do to keep from getting malaria. Babies will be screened with their medical history and demographic information.
Participants will also give a blood sample. Adults will have a finger stick. Children will have a heel stick. Or they will have blood taken from a vein.
Participation will last for 1 visit to the health center.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to be a global problem with devastating consequences, in particular for at-risk populations such as pregnant women and young infants. Pregnancy malaria is associated with low birth weight (LBW), maternal anemia, and gestational hypertension; both inflammation and the fetal response to infection may contribute to these poor outcomes. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes that bind to the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in the placenta, where they cause disease and may lead to death for the mother and her offspring. Women become resistant to PM as they acquire antibodies that target surface proteins of placental parasites. In areas of stable transmission, acute severe malaria syndromes are limited to children under 5 years of age. The pathogenesis of severe malaria remains poorly understood, although some evidence suggests that parasites causing severe malaria may express distinct antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Thus, vaccines to prevent malarial disease may need to target distinct antigens in order to protect pregnant women or young children.
The primary hypothesis in this study is that the burden of P. falciparum infection around Maferinyah, Guinea is sufficient to support future studies of malaria pathogenesis and immunity. We plan to enroll 1050 pregnant women and 1050 infants into a cross sectional study that will be conducted in Maferinyah and neighboring areas, Guinea. Women presenting for routine antenatal visits and older infants presenting for routine healthy visits (e.g, vaccinations, vitamins) at the health center in Maf(SqrRoot)(Registered Trademark)rinyah will be offered enrollment. Samples collected from the women and infants will be examined for evidence of infection by Pla smodium and other parasitic diseases in order to assess prevalence in these important reservoir populations. For our primary outcome, we will determine the prevalence of P. falciparum infection in these two key demographic groups, including their annual and seasonal variations, as these data will form the basis to design future natural history or interventional studies at this site. For our secondary outcomes, we will determine the prevalence of other parasitic infections based on multiplexed serologic assessments of blood samples.
Maferinyah Rural Health Training and Research Center
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-10-02T07:21:45-0400
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