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Linear growth failure, a manifestation of chronic undernutrition in early childhood, is a recalcitrant problem in resource constrained settings. The underlying causes of growth failure are multifactorial, but persistent and recurrent infection and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and immune activation, a condition commonly referred to as environmental enteropathy, is an important contributor. A highly enriched 13C-Sucrose Breath Test, a measure of sucrase-isomaltase activity, will be evaluated as a non-invasive biomarker of environmental enteropathy, and more specifically of intestinal brush border enzyme activity in 6 resource poor countries (Bangladesh, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Peru and Zambia) in 100 volunteers aged 12-15 months (total n=600) and evaluated relative to the lactose rhamnose test and linear and ponderal growth over a 3-6 month period following biomarker assessment. Field usability will also be assessed.
Environmental enteropathy is associated with linear and ponderal growth shortfalls in young children in resource constrained settings. However, the physiological alterations of intestinal function that accompany both the demonstrable evidence of inflammation and architectural changes seen in biopsies from effected children have yet to be elucidated, and this knowledge gap limits the development of effective strategies to optimally manage the condition. Furthermore, a limited number of non-invasive assays exist with which to assess the presence of environmental enteropathy in low resource settings. This study aims 1) to determine if sucrose-isomaltase enzyme is altered in children with environmental enteropathy by using a 13C-Sucrose breath test 2) to determine if the test is able to be employed in resource limited settings.
Not yet recruiting
University of Virginia
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-10-04T08:31:39-0400
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Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
D-Galactose:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-galactose in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to D-galactono-gamma-lactone and NADH or NADPH. Includes EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
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