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Cardiac arrest in the operating room is a rare but potentially catastrophic event with mortality rates greater than 50% (1). Recent CPR guidelines published by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (HSFC) describe how high quality CPR improves survival rates and neurological outcomes from cardiac arrest (2-4). Despite CPR training, adherence rates with performance guidelines are alarmingly low in many pediatric hospitals (9-17). In addition to performance errors, medication errors have been reported to be as high as 50% during cardiopulmonary arrest.(22). This can be attributed to many factors, including distractions and poor communication among team members. Previous studies suggested that loud noise in the operating room caused poor communication and impaired surgical performance (29). To understand more about simulation awareness during peri-operative cardiac arrest, we are planning on conducting a prospective observational study, using a simulated perioperative cardiac arrest scenario in pediatric hospital. We are aiming for a convenient sample of 20 simulation sessions. Each session will have a team of CPR providers (2 participants and 4 confederates). The 2 participants will include one anesthesiologist and one operating room nurse. The participants will be randomized into two group; group A will work in a noise environment of 85 dBA ( as per recommendation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and group B will work in a noise environment of 100 dBA. Participants will be wearing eye tracking devices during the scenario (Tobii Pro GlassesTM) designed to capture areas of interest (AOI) / visual fixation. We hypothesize that CC and medication errors are frequently left undetected and uncorrected, and that the less noise distractions during resuscitation improves but does not eliminate this pattern of inattentional blindness in resuscitation teams during simulated perioperative pediatric cardiac arrest. We also hypothesize that "look but not act" events are a frequent occurrence during simulated pediatric cardiac arrest, and that healthcare providers will have varying reasons that explain the occurrence of "look but not act" events.
Pediatric Cardiac Arrest and intraoperative arrest Cardiac arrest in the operating room is a rare but potentially catastrophic event with mortality rate of more than 50% (5). Each year, it is estimated that >15,000 infants and children in North America receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as a treatment of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA)(2, 3). The incidence of pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest can be as high as 20.9 per 10,000 cases(1). Recent CPR guidelines published by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (HSFC) describe how high quality chest compressions (CC) with adequate compression depth (5-6 cm) and rate (100-120 beats/min) improves survival rates and neurological outcomes from CPA(2-4). Patients receiving CC with adequate depth are more likely to survive than those who aren't (70% vs 16% 24-hour survival)(6), while those receiving CC within the target rate range demonstrate the highest rates of survival(7, 8).
Despite CPR training, adherence rates with performance guidelines are alarmingly low at pediatric hospitals(9-17). Professional rescuers observed that CPR quality during simulated and real cardiac arrests frequently fall well short of guidelines in leading institutions(6, 9, 10, 18-21). In addition to performance errors, medication errors have been reported to be as high as 50% during cardiopulmonary arrest. Because of the resuscitation environment, errors in prescribing, doing, preparing, labeling and administering the drugs are prone to occur.(22) A 2015 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report entitled: "Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act", recommended translational research focusing on the function of resuscitation teams be undertaken to improve outcomes from CPA(23).
1) Goals, Objectives, and Project Outputs Goal To identify, describe and quantify patterns of inattentional blindness related to critical errors for resuscitation teams during the management of perioperative pediatric cardiac arrest.
1. To determine the frequency of CC-related errors that are undetected by resuscitation teams during management of a simulated pediatric cardiac arrest with average noise level (85 dBA) vs high noise (100 dBA) in the operating room during resuscitation.
2. To determine the frequency of medication-related errors that are undetected by resuscitation teams during management of a simulated pediatric cardiac arrest with average noise level (85dBA) vs high noise (100 dBA) level in the operating room during resuscitation.
3. To determine the frequency of "look but not act" events (for CC related errors/ medication) during the management of simulated perioperative cardiac arrest.
4. To describe the underlying cause for "look but not act" events as it relates to CC related errors in management of simulated perioperative cardiac arrest.
Proposed Project Outputs
1. We hypothesize that CC and medication errors are frequently left undetected and uncorrected, and that the less noise distractions during resuscitation improves but does not eliminate this pattern of inattentional blindness in resuscitation teams during simulated perioperative pediatric cardiac arrest.
2. We hypothesize that "look but not act" events are a frequent occurrence during simulated pediatric cardiac arrest, and that healthcare providers will have varying reasons that explain the occurrence of "look but not act" events.
sound level volume
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Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-10-16T10:39:34-0400
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The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
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Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
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