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With aging population, a high prevalence of obesity, systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, we are facing an increased incidence of elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) initiating renal replacement therapy. The correct diagnosis of CKD, the prognosis of the elderly patient with CKD, mainly comparing initiate dialysis vs. remain in conservative treatment, the nutritional prognostic markers (sarcopenia), cardiovascular, mineral and bone metabolism, geriatric syndromes and sleep disorders are still debatable. Elderly patients are usually excluded from clinical trials and the scientific evidence is either scarce or based on retrospective data. Thus, the present study is a prospective cohort to evaluate the long-term evolution of patients ≥ 70 years with stage 4 or 5 CKD. The main outcomes are mortality and dialysis. These endpoints will be correlated with: geriatric syndromes, markers of mineral and bone metabolism (calcium, phosphorus, Klotho, parathormone,fibroblast growth factor 23, fibroblast growth factor 21, 25(OH) vitamin D and 1,25 vitamin D), cognitive decline, clinical demographic and biochemical data, bone densitometry and echocardiography, and sleep data. Patients will be follow-up at the nephrology outpatient clinic of the Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo. The sample size was calculated to be 500 subjects. The summary methodology will include: broad geriatric assessment, cognition test, fragility, Charlson comorbidity scores, biochemical measurements of urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, vitamin B12, folic acid, thyroid hormones, hepatitis virus, serum albumin, albumin/creatinine ratio, protein/creatinine ratio, 24-h urinary protein, skull tomography, bone densitometry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, actigraphy, polysomnography, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pitssburgh questionnaire and segmental electric bioimpedance
Chronic Kidney Diseases
Hospital das Clinicas
University of Sao Paulo General Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-10-24T12:49:34-0400
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Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.
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