Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Dementia is a common disorder affecting about 50 million people worldwide with nearly 10 million cases every year . It is characterized by cognitive impairments as well as behavior disabilities. Cognitive impairments include difficulties with memory, attention, language and other higher cortical functions. Behavior disabilities may include apathy, aggressive behavior, hallucinations and changes in social interaction. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer disease (AD). To plan a proper treatment for the patient it is critical to evaluate accurately the type of dementia as well as obtain the earliest diagnosis possible. However, accurate differential diagnosis in dementia poses difficulties due overlapping phenotypes and limited understanding of the mechanism and pathologies . Diagnosis of the dementia is performed based on the combination of clinical symptoms and biomarkers that include imaging, genetic biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and other objective markers of disease . The two main modalities used for dementia imaging are Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and molecular imaging including Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). MRI is performed with various of contrasts such as high resolution T1- weighted, T2- weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) . These methods give information about morphological modifications in the brain and atrophy characterizing the specific dementia type. In addition brain perfusion and diffusion pattern and assessment of the changing un the resting state functional connectivity network of the brain can be studied with MRI. PET with different tracer molecules allow diagnosis of metabolism pattern in the brain (18F-FDG-PET), modifications in the neurotransmitter system and detection of brain plaques associated with dementia such as amyloid β or Tau aggregates . Data acquired from both modalities allow the reliable and differential diagnosis, prediction of pre-dementia stages, monitoring therapy response and additional research information regarding the mechanism of the condition.
Simultaneous measurements of PET and MR together as is recently became possible have allow spatial and temporal correlation between the two modalities opening a window of opportunities that was not available so far. The first practical advantage is because most neurological patients should go through both MRI and PET scans. Allowing both scans in the occasion significantly increase patient comfort. Furthermore, the simultaneous scans in contrast to sequential scans allow correlation between PET and MR informaiton without the concern of pathological brain modifications between the scans. Currently PET is performed combined with CT, which is superior to MR in the field of brain images. MR high soft tissue resolution as well as extra information it may provide regarding brain perfusion, diffusion, metabolic parameters etc., make the MR a far better modality for brain imaging than CT. In addition, the combined tool allow leveraging MR data to improve PET data quantification. PET issues such as motion correction, partial volume effect and correct localization of the tracer in the brain anatomy that cause PET image degradation and lower accuracy and robustness of PET quantitative parameters, can be solved by integrating MR data into the analysis. Several recently published articles have demonstrated different correction approaches for motion correction and partial volume effect showing an improvement in the PET images both visually and quantitatively . PET attenuation correction using MR data have also been studied, however this matter still need to be resolved. PET/MR for neurological conditions, in general, and specifically for conditions resulting in dementia, is a promising application with a large variety of research opportunities and its abilities need to be explored. Optimization of the acquisition protocols and even more so, the analysis and quantification protocols still need to be performed and will be the focus of this study.
Not yet recruiting
Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-11-12T18:25:39-0500
This project is based on a three-year program that aims to improve the knowledge of the socioeconomic consequences of dementia in Norway. By including patients with and without dementia in...
The purpose of this study is to use a brain imaging method called PIB PET VAT PET to determine dementia subtypes in patients with Parkinson's disease. The ultimate goal of this project is ...
Studies have shown conflicting results of the effect of exercise on dementia patients. The aim of this study is to examine the role of physical activity on the risk of cognitive impairmen...
This study is being done to learn more about normal thinking and behavior, mild thinking and behavior problems, Frontotemporal Dementia and other forms of dementia in families in which one...
This study aims to assess the prevalence and severity of dementia in an established cohort of community-dwelling older adults living in three neighboring rural Ecuadorian villages (Atahual...
Most forms of dementia are associated with progressive cognitive and noncognitive impairments that can severely affect fitness to drive. Whether safe driving is still possible in the single case, howe...
There is a lack of understanding about how adolescents perceive dementia, and what their dementia related experiences are. Without such information, it is hard to make a case for the need to raise awa...
This is the first of two articles that provide a guide for the clinical management for people with dementia who present with periodontal disease in dental practice. Conditions that cause dementia and ...
Low serum urate (sU) has been suggested to increase the risk of dementia since a reduction might impair antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, high sU is associated with increased cardiovascular ris...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease putatively associated with dementia. However, the epidemiologic evidence of the relationship between psoriasis and dementia has been limited. We used a larg...
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Tests designed to assess various aspects of neurocognitive function and/or dementia.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
A form of presenile DEMENTIA characterized by cortical dementia, NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES without SENILE PLAQUES, Fahr's type CALCINOSIS, and ATROPHY in frontotemporal or TEMPORAL LOBE.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Dementia describes a range of symptoms of cognitive decline. For example memory loss, problems with reasoning and communication skills, and a reduction in a person's abilities and skills in carrying out daily activities. There are about 820,000 peo...