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Rates of overweight and obesity continue to climb globally, also in Norway. Cardiometabolic consequences of body fat accumulation includes diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. Progress is needed towards ameliorating these risk, particulary in vulnerable patients. Modifying energy balance has proven to be difficult. Adiposity is activly regulated and defended in obese as in normal weight persons.Thus, most weight loss attempts are followed by weight regain. Lifestyle improvements give substantial benefits and may be preferable to unsuccessful and repeated attempts to loose weight permanently
Patient with obesity and ectopic fat (examples: visceral, pancreatic, intramuscular, hepatic) and risk og type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefit from interventions that lower body weight. Diet and physical activity are optimal. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss reduce the incidence of CVD and was superiour to a low fat diet in lowering ectopic fat. Exercise lowers risk of type 2 diabetes and contributes to weight loss. Addition of exercise after 6 month of dieting decreased visceral fat without weight loss, suggesting that reduction in ectopic fat in addition to increased lean body mass explain the benefits of exercise.
Poor motivation, physical limitations, socioeconomic factors and lack of enjoyment of exercise are common. and represent a major barrier to lifestyle change. Initiating one lifestyle change at a time (diet or exercise) may improve adherence.
Studies examining the effects og lifestyle change on disease outcomes are difficult to conduct due to long follow up and large samples required. In the abscence of of hard outcomes, surrogate endpoints are of considerable importance in guiding lifestyle advice. Recently software has been developed to quantify ectopic fat deposits using MRI technology.
To our knowledge, studies looking at the differential effects of dietary change versus physical activity on ectopic fat deposits using advanced technology have not been done.
Overweight or Obesity
Oslo University Hospital, Aker
Not yet recruiting
Oslo University Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-11-12T18:25:33-0500
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A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
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