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The purpose of this research study is to better understand how blood flow and metabolism change can influence brain development in the early decades of life.
We will examine brain blood flow and metabolism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brain's blood vessels expand and constrict to regulate blood flow based on the brain's needs. The amount of expanding and contracting the blood vessels can do varies by age. The brain's blood flow changes in small ways during everyday activities, such as normal brain growth, exercise, or deep concentration. Significant illness or psychological stress may increase the brain's metabolic demand or cause other bigger changes in blood flow. If blood vessels are not able to expand to give more blood flow when metabolic demand is high, the brain may not get all of the oxygen it needs. In extreme circumstances, if the brain is unable to get enough oxygen for a long time, a stroke may occur. Sometimes small strokes occur without other noticeable changes and are only detectable on an MRI. These are sometimes called "silent strokes." In less extreme circumstances, not having as much oxygen as it wants may cause the brain to grow and develop more slowly than it should.
One way to test the ability of blood vessels to expand is by measuring blood flow while breathing in carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide causes blood vessels in the brain to dilate without increasing brain metabolism.
During this study participants may be asked to undergo a blood draw, MRI, and potential neuropsychological assessments. It is also possible that the study team will use a special mask (RespirACT) to control the amount of carbon dioxide the participants breathe in so they don't breathe in too much.
This is an observational study. The purpose of the study is to identify imaging biomarkers for brain tissue under high metabolic stress at risk for permanent injury. We will measure CBF, OEF, and CVR in children with and without perturbations in cerebral oxygen delivery over time to determine each parameter's role in clinical and radiologic neurologic outcomes. Measuring CBF and OEF can be done with specialized MRI sequences. Measuring CVR requires a vasoactive response, such as carbon dioxide. In order to delivery carbon dioxide evenly and as safely as possible, we will use RespirACT, an MRI-compatible device, to prevent over-breathing carbon dioxide and allow rapid steady-state physiology to minimize total scan time.
Sickle Cell Disease
Washington University of St. Louis
Washington University School of Medicine
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-11-14T17:39:54-0500
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An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 22.214.171.124.
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 126.96.36.199.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
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