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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS usually progresses with attacks, sequelae after attacks because it severely restricts the quality of life in patients and leads to progressive disability (Frohman et al., 2006). Balance and coordination problems, decreasing of physical activity level and fall disorders are observed in patients with MS (Confavreux et al., 2014). When the literature was examined, a relationship was found between kinesiophobia, quality of life, physical activity level and pain in stroke patients. Physical activity level, balance, fear of falling and kinesiophobia which are frequently seen in patients with MS have not been studied. In this study, the relationship between kinesiophobia, physical activity, balance and fear of fall in MS patients will be investigated.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has significant heterogeneity in terms of signs-symptoms, clinical course and outcomes (Compston, 2014). The incidence of the disease increases after the age of 18 and reaches the highest level between the ages of 20-40 (average age 30). It is thought that MS affects approximately 2.1 million people worldwide with approximately 175,000 newly diagnosed cases each year and is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults (World Health Organization Press, 2008).
MS signs and symptoms can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary signs and symptoms are vision problems (optic neuritis), sensory influences, spasticity, tremor, weakness, cognitive problems and decreased motor functions. Secondary ones occur as a result of primary signs and symptoms. Examples include decubitus ulcers, osteoporosis and muscle atrophy that may develop due to immobility, as well as low physical activity levels. The tertiary ones are related to psychological, social, occupational, personal and sexual problems that occur as a result of long-term chronic disease (Stys, 2012).
These findings and symptoms cause a decrease in the level of physical activity in patients. When physical activity conditions for MS are examined, there is reliable evidence that these patients have low levels of physical activity and spend more time in immobile postures. According to the studies, MS patients who participated in high levels of physical activity and spent time in mobile postures were found to have better mental health, better social functionality, less fatigue and lower early mortality rates compared to inactive ones. It is thought that the level of physical activity in MS may also be associated with improvements in health-related quality of life and stability of disease symptoms (Mothl, 2008; Motl et al., 2015).
75% of patients with MS report balance problems in the course of the disease. Impairment of proprioception and vibration senses and the influence of optic and vestibular tracts adversely affect balance in MS (Cattaneo et al., 2006). Impaired balance, worsening of the quality of life and the fear of falling can affect the patient. As a result, mobility and independence decrease and fall increase (Cameron et al., 2010). The main cause of injuries and fractures in MS groups is falls (Mothl et al., 2015).
Balance and fall problems in neurological diseases create kinesiophobia, which is defined as fear that leads to avoidance of activity in the patient, which leads to a decrease in functional capacity, release of movement in wrong patterns, and consequently a decrease in physical activity level. There is a strong correlation between the levels of kinesiophobia and physical activity in different patient groups (Wouters et al., 2011).
Kinesiophobia has been described as a fear of excessive, unrealistic re-injury that can be gained after painful injury, reducing physical movement and activity. Patients with kinesiophobia think that movement will cause injury again and cause additional pain. This situation leads to a decrease in physical fitness, avoidance of activity, functional disability and depression in the long term (Vlaeyen et al., 2016). Although studies on falls, balance and physical activity have been conducted in patients with MS, no study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between these parameters and kinesiophobia. From this point of view, the relationship between kinesiophobia and these variables in MS patients will be examined.
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-12-09T00:56:34-0500
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A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
A non-glycosylated form of interferon beta-1 that has a serine at position 17. It is used in the treatment of both RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS and CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Multiple Sclerosis MS
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