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This crossover, in-vivo study was carried out with 10 patients who have been started to be treated at Orthodontics Department. 3 elastomeric ligatures were examined in terms of microbiological and surface roughness. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on the ligatures extracted from the mouths of the patients at T1, T2, T3, and T4. Surface roughness analyses were evaluated with Atomic Force Microscopic Analyses before (Ra0) and after (Ra1) usage of each group.
During orthodontic treatment, maintaining oral hygiene gets difficult due to the placement of bands, brackets and elastomeric ligatures in the oral cavity It was previously reported that permanent orthodontic treatment led to dense plaque formation and increase in cariogenic and periodontal bacterial growth. Throughout treatment, the presence of plaque at the gingival border was accepted as the main etiological factor in periodontal diseases, whereas increased plaque accumulation around orthodontic brackets is known to result in white spot lesions and in severe cases in tooth decay which negatively affects the quality of life. In patients with permanent orthodontic treatment, common pathological changes are gingivitis, bleeding and gingival growth; thus, gingival index and plaque index parameters have been used as indicators of periodontal disease in many studies. Enamel demineralization which results in white spot formation is observed due to the increase in the number and volume of acid-producing bacteria, and the decrease in pH level because of the glucose metabolized by these cariogenic bacteria . The most commonly investigated bacteria among those mentioned above is Streptococcus Mutans. In the literature, it has been the subject of many studies, including those investigating the correlation between the S. mutans count and the amount of adhesive left between brackets and the enamel, adhesion of S. mutans to nickel titanium and copper-nickel brackets, the difference in S. mutans colonization between self-ligation system and normal brackets, and the effect of elastomeric rings and ligature wires on S. mutans colonization.
Current product development studies have resulted in the development of new kind of elastomeric ligatures (non-conventional elastomeric ligatures) in order to reduce the friction of orthodontic sliding mechanics. Manufacturers claim that non-conventional elastomeric ligatures reduced ligation friction by 60% compared to conventional modules. It was reported in another study that brackets combined via non-conventional elastomeric ligatures resulted in a reduced friction force compared to conventional elastomeric ligatures in any wires from 14-inch NITI to 19.25 SS.
The efforts to reduce friction between orthodontic wires and braces had a role in the development of elastomeric ligatures with altered surface structures. A difference in the colonized bacteria around the brackets can be anticipated in connection with this altered surface structure. To our current knowledge, bacterial colonization on non-conventional elastomeric ligatures was investigated in one study only, where Leona slide elastomeric ligatures were compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures in terms of microbial growth using microbial culture technique. Laboratory procedures may be inaccurate, time-consuming and difficult in this technique. Recently, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been used in order to eliminate these limitations. PCR is a simple, rapid and accurate method. It may be used in patients vulnerable to enamel demineralization in order to detect the few cariogenic bacteria. This technique was used in this study for microbial evaluation. In light of this information, the aim of this study was to compare S. mutans colonization among 3 different commercial types of non-conventional elastomeric ligatures and ligature wires. The secondary aim of the study was to investigate the surface structures of these ligature types via atomic force microscope and to associate these surface structures with bacterial colonization. AFM is a very high-resolution scanning force microscope in which surface roughness and irregularities, and the severity of these irregularities could be investigated.
Leone slide low friction elastomeric ligature, RMO energy tough - o elastomeric ligature, Dentsply sili tie elastomeric ligature, AO twisted ended ligature wire
University of Gaziantep
Published on BioPortfolio: 2019-12-10T01:21:00-0500
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Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...
Dentistry is the study, management and treatment of diseases and conditions affecting the mouth, jaw, teeth and their supporting tissues (Oxford Medical Dictionary) The work of a dentist ranges from regular patient check-up to orthodontics and surgery....
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...