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Neck pain is the 4th leading cause of disability in the world, with approximately 50% being neuropathic in nature. Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are one of the most commonly used treatments for cervical radiculopathy. Physical exam signs, including non-organic signs, have been shown to predict outcomes for low back pain treatments, but have yet to be adequately studied for neck pain.
In this prospective, observational study, 72 patients with cervical radiculopathy undergoing an initial ESI for this pain episode will undergo a comprehensive history and physical examination that includes the presence of Spurling test, midline and paraspinal tenderness, 9 non-organic tests in 5 categories, and 3 questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, sleep, and somatization. The investigators will also evaluate patients' MRI results to determine patients' precise pathology. Patients will then receive interlaminar cervical ESI. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of people with a positive categorical outcome, defined as a >/= 2-point decrease in arm pain 4 weeks post-procedure coupled with a score >/= 5 on a 7-point patient global impression of change (PGIC) scale 4 weeks post-treatment, indicating subjective improvement.
The main objectives of this study are to:
1. Determine the ability of physical exam, including non-organic signs, to predict ESI outcomes in individuals with cervical radicular pain.
2. Determine the prevalence of different non-organic signs, and the association with other factors that may be associated with non-organic illness such as psychopathology and multiple unrelated pain conditions.
Seventy-two patients with cervical radiculopathy undergoing an initial ESI for this pain episode will undergo a comprehensive history and physical examination that includes the presence of Spurling test, midline and paraspinal tenderness, 9 non-organic tests in 5 categories, and 3 questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, sleep, and somatization.
Non-organic signs that the investigators will evaluate are:
2. Non-anatomical (e.g. cervical radicular pain causing tenderness in the arm or mid-back)
2. Sham stimulation
1. Downward pressure on head elicits neck pain
2. With hands clasped behind neck, passive rotation of shoulders elicits neck pain
a. Inability to rotate head > 45 degrees during overt range-of-motion testing, but significantly greater range of motion when patient is lying prone and asked to turn head to respond to physician request (e.g. sign paper, count fingers, answer question).
4. Regional disturbances
1. Sensory disturbances that deviate from normal neuroanatomy or pathology (e.g. single herniated disc causing pain throughout entire arm or radiating into lower back)
2. Motor disturbances that deviate from normal neuroanatomy or pathology (e.g. dramatic non-neurological weakness, give-away weakness)
1. Verbal (e.g. crying, screaming)
2. Non-verbal (e.g. exaggerated grimacing, clutching affected area, abnormally slow or rigid movements)
The investigators will evaluate MRI results to determine the precise pathology. Patients will then receive interlaminar cervical ESI. In accordance with standard practice, a Tuohy needle will be directed towards the side of the radicular pain, with correct needle position in the epidural space being confirmed with real-time contrast injection. Once the physician is satisfied with the spread, a 3 mL solution consisting of depo-methylprednisolone 40 mg + 2 mL normal saline will be injected. At Seoul National University, due to Korean healthcare regulations, the mixture will be a 3 mL solution containing 10 mg of dexamethasone and 2 mL saline. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of people with a positive categorical outcome, defined as a >/= 2-point decrease in average arm pain 4 weeks post-procedure coupled with a score >/= 5 on a 7-point patient global impression of change (PGIC) scale 4 weeks post-treatment, indicating subjective improvement. Secondary outcome measures will include mean reductions in average and worst 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) arm pain scores over the past 7 days, mean reduction in average and worst neck pain scores, neck disability index (NDI) score, medication usage, patient global impression of change (PGIC), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8), and side effects. Individuals who experience a positive categorical outcome at 4 weeks will continue to be evaluated at 12 weeks, while those with a negative outcome will exit the study.
Cervical epidural steroid injection
Seoul National University
Korea, Republic of
Not yet recruiting
Johns Hopkins University
Published on BioPortfolio: 2020-03-31T04:04:41-0400
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