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The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral melatonin in improving sleep continuity in children with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental delay who have chronic insomnia by comparing Fast Release Melatonin (FR MLT) to placebo and Timed Release Melatonin (TR MLT) with placebo in a randomized cross-over design trial.
Sleep disturbance in children is a universal concern. The prevalence of sleep disorders may be as high as 80% in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The majority of the parental complaints are with difficulty getting children to settle to sleep at night and stay asleep (insomnia).
Two recent studies comparing children with epilepsy to matched controls or to sibling controls both concluded that children with epilepsy have more daytime sleepiness that may be due to underlying sleep disorders, and significantly greater sleep problems than their non-epileptic peers.
Endogenous melatonin is thought to synchronize the sleep-wake pattern with the light-dark cycle of the normal day. Exogenous melatonin has been found to be effective in reducing sleep onset latency, increasing sleep duration, and increasing sleep efficiency in a meta-analysis of subjects with sleep disorders. The melatonin in fast release preparations is released quickly and has a short half-life of less than 1 hour. It is most helpful in decreasing sleep onset latency (the time to fall asleep). The melatonin in timed release tablets is released in a slower more sustained way and, in a small study in children with severe neurodevelopmental disabilities, was more useful for sleep maintenance.
Fast release melatonin has been shown to be effective in a study of children with multiple disabilities and in one trial in children with epilepsy. Further rigorous evaluation of melatonin is needed as the validity of these studies is limited by their lack of blinding, small sample sizes, and subjective methods of sleep-wake outcome evaluations.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Fast Release Melatonin (FR MLT), Fast Release Placebo, Timed Release Melatonin (TR MLT), Timed Release Placebo
The Hospital for Sick Children
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The Hospital for Sick Children
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:08:26-0400
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A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Uncontrolled release of biological material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a biological hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Compounds that block release of the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
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