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Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) refers to pathological states in which arterial blood oxygenation is severely impaired，and which need invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) as respiratory support technique in most cases.However，IPPV carries well-known risks of complications such as ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) or ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)，and the incidence of which is increased as the prolongation of IPPV so as to lead to higher mortality rate. Consequently，early extubation is extraordinarily necessary.
More recently, NPPV has shown to shorten the duration of IPPV，reduce the mortality and morbidity rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite this evidence, the efficacy of NPPV in patients with AHRF has not been evidenced. However，NPPV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation，and reduce inspiratory muscle effort，neuromuscular drive，and dyspnea scores. Moreover，to some patints，NPPV is similar with IPPV in providing oxygenation.
The duration of weaning is from the first day a patient met standard criteria for weaning readiness to the time of successful extubation (lasting at least 48 h)，which represents 40-50% of the total duration of IPPV.As a result，duration of IPPV would be shortened if that of weaning was shortened.
The investigators hypothesized that in mechanical ventilated patients with AHRF who met standard criteria for weaning readiness and suffer failure of spontaneous breathing trial, use of NPPV for early extubation, providing adequate ventilation and oxygenation, would shorten the duration of IPPV as the primary end-point variable, thereby reduce the incidence of complication and mortality rates. Accordingly, the investigators conducted a prospective，randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of this strategy compared with the conventional-weaning approach.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
Beijing Chao Yang Hospital
Not yet recruiting
Beijing Chao Yang Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:12:37-0400
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Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
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