Pilot Study of Allogeneic Tumor Cell Vaccine With Metronomic Oral Cyclophosphamide and Celecoxib in Patients Undergoing Resection of Lung and Esophageal Cancers, Thymic Neoplasms, and Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas

2014-08-27 03:12:55 | BioPortfolio



- Certain types of lung, esophageal, or thymic cancers and mesotheliomas have specific antigens (protein molecules) on their surfaces. Research studies have shown that giving a vaccine that contains antigens similar to these may cause an immune response, which may keep tumors from growing. Researchers are also interested in determining whether the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide and the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib may help the vaccine work better, particularly in patients with lung cancer.


- To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of tumor cell vaccines in combination with cyclophosphamide and celecoxib in patients with cancers involving the chest.


- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have had surgery for small cell or non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal cancer, thymoma or thymic carcinoma, and malignant pleural mesothelioma.


- Following recovery from surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, participants will have leukapheresis to collect lymphocytes (white blood cells) for testing.

- Participants will receive celecoxib and cyclophosphamide to take twice a day at home, 7 days before the vaccine.

- Participants will have the vaccine in the clinical center (one or two shots per month for 6 months), and will stay in the clinic for about 4 hours after the vaccine. Participants will keep a diary at home of any side effects from the vaccine, and will continue to take cyclophosphamide and celecoxib.

- One month after the sixth vaccine, participants will provide another blood sample for testing, and if the tests are satisfactory will return to the clinic every 3 months for 2 additional vaccines.

- Participants will return to clinic for follow-up physical examinations, lab tests, and scans every 3 months for 2 years and then every 6 months for up to 3 years.



During recent years, the cancer-testis (CT) antigens have emerged as attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Whereas lung and esophageal cancers, as well as malignant pleural mesotheliomas express a variety of CT antigens, immune responses to these antigens appear uncommon in patients with these malignancies, possibly due to low-level, heterogeneous antigen expression, as well as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. Our published studies indicate that numerous CT antigens can be induced in tumor cells by DNA demethylating agents and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Conceivably, vaccination of cancer patients with allogeneic tumor cells expressing high levels of multiple CT antigens in combination with depletion of T regulatory cells will induce broad immunity to these antigens. In order to examine this issue, patients with resectable lung and esophageal cancers, thymic neoplasms, and malignant pleural mesotheliomas will be vaccinated with irradiated K562 erythroleukemia cells expressing GM-CSF (K562-GM) following completion of appropriate combined modality therapy. Vaccines will be administered in conjunction with metronomic oral cyclophosphamide (50 mg PO BID times 7d q 14d), and celecoxib (400 mg PO BID). Serologic responses to a variety of recombinant CT antigens as well as cell-mediated recognition of autologous tumor cells and EBV-transformed B cells will be assessed before and after vaccination.

Primary Objectives:

- To assess the safety of K562-GM allogeneic tumor cell vaccines in combination with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide and celecoxib in thoracic oncology patients

Secondary Objectives:

- To ascertain if K562-GM cell vaccines induce immunity to CT antigens in patients with thoracic malignancies.

- To examine if oral metronomic cyclophosphamide and celecoxib therapy diminishes the number and percentage of T regulatory cells and diminishes activity of these cells in patients with resected thoracic malignancies at risk of recurrence.


- Patients with histologically or cytologically proven small cell or non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal cancer, thymoma or thymic carcinoma, and malignant pleural mesothelioma who have undergone resection of their neoplasms.

- Patients must be 18 years or older with an ECOG performance status of 0 - 2, without evidence of unstable or decompensated myocardial disease. Patients must have adequate pulmonary reserve evidenced by FEV1 and DLCO equal to or greater than 30% predicted; pCO2 less than 50 mm Hg and pO2 greater than 60 mm Hg on room air ABG; and be on no immunosuppressive medications except inhaled corticosteroids at the time vaccination commences.

- Patients must have a platelet count greater than 100,000, an ANC equal to or greater than 1500 without transfusion or cytokine support, a normal PT, and adequate hepatic function as evidenced by a total bilirubin of < 1.5 times upper limits of normal. Serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.6 mg/ml or the creatinine clearance must be greater than 70 ml/min/1.73m(2) at the time vaccination commences.


- Following recovery from surgery and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation, patients will be vaccinated via intradermal injection with 1.5x10(7) -2.5x10(7) irradiated K562-GM-tumor cells periodically over 6 months. Sterility, potency and identity of the vaccines preps will be confirmed before administration.

- Vaccines will be administered in conjunction with metronomic oral cyclophosphamide and celecoxib.

- Systemic toxicities, and immunologic response to therapy will be recorded. Pre and post vaccination serologic responses to a standard panel of CT antigens as well as cell mediated responses to epigenetically-modified autologous EBV-transformed B and autologous tumor cells (if available) will be assessed before and after vaccination.

- Numbers/percentages and function of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood will be assessed before, during, and after vaccinations.

- Patients will be followed in the clinic with routine staging scans until disease recurrence.

- As the exact set of comparisons and analyses to be performed will be determined following completion of the trial, and will be based on limited numbers of patients, the analyses will be considered exploratory and hypothesis generating rather than definitive.

- Approximately 25 patients will be accrued to this trial.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Uncontrolled, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention


Lung Cancer


Allogeneic Tumor Cell Vaccine (K562), Celecoxib, cyclophosphamide


National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
United States




National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:12:55-0400

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A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.


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