Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
In the face of an increased prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases in Canada, much effort has been invested to educate the population about healthy eating. Although Canadians are now aware of the importance of healthier food habits, rates of obesity and chronic diseases are still increasing. In addition, even if different labelling strategies are used to identify healthier foods in the market, consumers remain confused about what healthy eating should be. Might describing foods as healthy have unintended side-effects on food intake? Previous literature has shown that perceptions about the healthiness of foods may bias estimations of caloric content of foods, leading consumers to underestimate the caloric content of "healthy" food choices. Indeed, the investigators have recently shown that perceiving a food as healthy increased intake of that food by 35% in undergraduate female students. The general objective of the proposed research is to investigate whether food perceptions influence intake and appetite sensations in normal-weight and overweight/obese restrained and unrestrained males and females. This laboratory study, in which perceived healthiness and "fatteningness" of oatmeal-raisin cookies will be manipulated during an ad libitum single-meal occasion, will increase the investigators knowledge of the effects of external cues (and other psychological and physiological factors) on the control of food intake. Because the popularity and demand for nutrition information is increasing, such information is needed to improve clinical practices aiming at promoting sustainable healthy eating habits to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
The laboratory study will be conducted at the Clinical Investigation Unit (CIU) of the Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF). Food-related variables (perceived healthiness and "fatteningness" of foods) will be manipulated during an ad libitum single-meal test. We will examine the effects of these variables on food intake and appetite sensations in male and female normal-weight and overweight/obese restrained and unrestrained eaters. Each participant will be tested on an individual basis, during a 2-hour experimental session (randomized sessions between 11:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.). Because participants might change their eating behaviors if they become aware of the true purpose of the study, deception must be used. Males and females will thus be recruited to participate in an ostensible market-research study involving a taste-rating task, and each participant will then be carefully debriefed at the end of the experiment.
Male and female normal-weight with a body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5kg/m2 and <25kg/m2 and overweight/obese with a BMI ≥25kg/m2, restrained and unrestrained eaters will be randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions ("healthy," "diet," and "unhealthy"). A plate of about 1000 grams (g) of bite-sized oatmeal-raisin cookies will be presented to each participant. On average, one bite-size cookie is about 10g, which represents approximately 40 kilocalories (kcal) per cookie. The manipulation of healthiness and "fatteningness" perceptions of the oatmeal-raisin cookies will be performed verbally by the experimenter as follows. In the "healthy" condition, the description will emphasize nutritional characteristics (e.g., high in fibre, low in saturated fat and free from trans-fat), so the overall healthiness of the snack will be highlighted. In the "diet" condition, the description will emphasize the benefits of oatmeal fibre for weight management (e.g., helps to cope with hunger), thereby highlighting the weight-loss potential of the snack. In the "unhealthy" condition, the description will emphasize hedonic characteristics of the food and less healthy ingredients (e.g. gourmet cookies, contains butter and sugar), so some inherent unhealthy aspects of the snack will be highlighted.
Males and females involved in the study will be invited to participate in a market-research study investigating various dimensions of a new snack product. A telephone screening interview will first be conducted for all subjects interested in participating in the study to ensure that they meet our inclusion criteria, to facilitate randomization prior to the experiment session and to set the appointment with the participant. During this interview, each participant will be informed that this market-research study involves a taste-rating task in which they will taste and rate a new snack food. They will have to self-report their weight and height, and answer descriptive questions about inclusion criteria (e.g., history of health problems, current medications, liking of the tested food, and prior participation in studies). They will also have to complete the Restraint Scale to assess whether they exhibit behavioral and attitudinal concerns about dieting and weight control. Each participant will then be categorized as a restrained eater (≥12 in males and ≥15 in females) or unrestrained eater (<12 in males and <15 in females). Following the categorization established by the Restraint Scale and BMI calculation, each participant will then be randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions, according to restraint and weight status (Note that randomization will be adjusted according to the measured BMI). The telephone screening interview will be conducted at least one week prior to the appointment at the CIU to ensure that having been asked about restraint and weight status will not affect participants' food intake and appetite sensations by making restraint and weight salient during the experiment. To standardize food intake and to insure that subjects have comparable baseline appetite sensations across experimental manipulations, participants will be asked to refrain from eating oatmeal-raisin cookies (tested food) for at least 24 hours prior to the experiment, and to arrive at the CIU for the appointment in a pre-meal state (i.e., at least 2 hours without food prior to the experiment). Because physical activity might have an impact on appetite sensations, participants will also be asked to refrain from doing any strenuous exercise at least for 24 hours before the experiment. Note that the experimenter in the study will strictly follow a detailed script when testing each participant to ensure that the testing will be consistent between all participants.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Healthy, Diet, Unhealthy
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functionnal Foods (INAF)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:02-0400
The purpose of this study is to develop a healthy stress-induced eating intervention that will encourage individuals to replace unhealthy stress-induced eating with healthy stress-induced ...
Recommendations for treatment of childhood obesity in a primary care setting have been developed. These recommendations include beginning treatment with young children, focusing treatment...
Many teenagers have unhealthy eating habits and do not get enough physical activity. This study will examine whether the neighborhood in which a teenager lives affects his/her quality of l...
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of a CD-ROM-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to traditional manual-based group therapy for obese individuals with binge-eating ...
In our study, we used data from 4,758 healthy adults from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to examine the associations between evidence-based diet quality in...
Unhealthy eating behaviors contribute to obesity and chronic illness. This study examined the relative contributions of a healthy-eater self-schema (a self-conception as a healthy eater) and nutrition...
There is increasing evidence to suggest that work-family conflict is implicated in poor eating patterns. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. The objectives of the present study were to d...
The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the associations among education, income and dietary pattern (DP) in children and adolescents from high, medium and low human development countries (...
Given that traditional interventions promoting the adoption of a healthy diet are having limited impacts on the population's food choices and eating behaviours, researchers and health practitioners co...
Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both...
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. This does not include DIET THERAPY, a specific diet prescribed in the treatment of a disease.
Governmental guidelines and objectives pertaining to public food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet and changes in food habits to ensure healthy diet.
A sub-PHENOTYPE of obese individuals who have a risk for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES between that of healthy individuals with normal weight and unhealthy individuals with obesity.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Dietary patterns which have been found to be important in reducing disease risk.
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...