Assessing Top Down and Bottom Up Attention Mechanisms in Smokers Using Nicotine Nasal Spray

2014-08-27 03:13:14 | BioPortfolio



- Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and researchers are interested in gaining a better understanding of the perceived beneficial effects of nicotine to help improve treatment strategies for nicotine dependence. Understanding the conditions under which nicotine improves attention and cognitive processing may provide more useful information for this research.

- The ability to pay attention and filter relevant from irrelevant stimuli is central to all aspects of information-processing. Top-down and bottom-up attentional processes illustrate how the brain combines stimuli and goal-directed behaviors. Bottom-up processing is an unconscious response to sensory input; for instance, when the eyes automatically focus on a prominent image in a picture. Top-down processing is a conscious response to drive attention toward specific stimuli; for instance, when a person is asked to focus on a less immediately noticeable image in a picture. Researchers are interested in determining whether nicotine improves cognitive performance by acting on top-down or bottom-up attentional mechanisms.


- To investigate the effect of nicotine on the top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention in cigarette smokers.


- Current smokers (at least 10 cigarettes per day for at least 1 year) between 18 and 55 years of age.


- This study will involve one training session and four experimental sessions.

- During the training session, participants will receive a sample dose of the nicotine nasal spray used in the study to determine if they can tolerate the effects.

- For each experimental session, participants will receive one dose of nicotine nasal spray (1 mg, 2 mg, or 3 mg) or placebo spray, followed by blood pressure and heart rate monitoring, performance of an attentional test, and questionnaires to rate participants' perception of nicotine effectiveness. Participants may receive different doses at different sessions, and will not be told which dose they will receive at any given point.



The objective is to investigate the dose-response effect of nicotine on the top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention in cigarette smokers.

Study population:

Male and nonpregnant-female smokers 18 to 55 years of age.


This study is a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of nicotine or placebo nasal sprays. Participants have five visits: a training session and four experimental sessions. Each participant receives a test dose of the nasal spray immediately following the training session to ascertain tolerability and become familiarized with the effect of the spray. One dose (0, 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 mg) of nicotine nasal spray is administered at the beginning of each experimental session followed by the test battery.

Outcome Measures:

Outcome measures are vital signs, ratings of mood and drug effect, and performance (accuracy, response time) on a test of selective attention.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind


Drug Addiction




National Institute on Drug Abuse, Biomedical Research Center (BRC)
United States




National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:14-0400

Clinical Trials [438 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Prevalence, Management and Follow-up of Patients With Addiction to Opioid Analgesics

The demand for addiction care for patients with addiction to analgesics increases with the number of prescription of analgesics grade 2; this is a public health problem There is no support...

Nicotine Pharmacokinetics From Research Electronic Nicotine Delivery System S-TA-U001 in Smokers and E-Cigarette Users

To better understand the PK and associated pharmacodynamic (PD) responses produced by the Research ENDS S-TA-U001 product, this study will compare the Research ENDS S-TA-U001 to - The ...

Developing Computer Based Treatments for Addiction

The purpose of our research is to examine the promise of a new computer based approach to use in usual drug counseling when treating crack cocaine addiction.

Integration of the Therapeutic Workplace in Drug Court

Drug Courts were developed as a therapeutic alternative to incarceration of drug-involved offenders by providing 'judicially supervised' drug abuse treatment and probation for nonviolent o...

Employment-Based Reinforcement to Motivate Drug Abstinence in the Treatment of Drug Addiction. - 2

The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term exposure to the Therapeuitc Workplace intervention could sustain drug abstinence over an extended period of time in heroin- and ...

PubMed Articles [7718 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?

Drug addiction is a worldwide societal problem and public health burden, and results from recreational drug use that develops into a complex brain disorder. The opioid system, one of the first discove...

Neuroplastic and cognitive impairment in substance use disorders: a therapeutic potential of cognitive stimulation.

Drug addiction is a chronic and relapsing disorder in which repeated drug exposure compromises brain neuroplasticity. Brain areas normally involved in learning and goal-directed behaviors become corru...

Food addiction: a valid concept?

Can food be addictive? What does it mean to be a food addict? Do common underlying neurobiological mechanisms contribute to drug and food addiction? These vexing questions have been the subject of con...

Addiction to alcohol and drugs among the population of transcarpathian region.

Introduction: Alcohol and drugs are a factor that significantly affects the health of the population. The consequences of alcohol abuse and drug addiction are not only a medical, but also socio-econom...

Drug Addiction: Mechanisms of Nicotine Dependence Unmasked by Gene Editing.

New gene editing technologies are enabling exploration of previously intractable features of genetic risk for drug addiction. A recent study using this technology reveals new insights into how a muta...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.

A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.

Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.

A component of the Executive Office of the President established by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The Office establishes policies, priorities, and objectives for national DRUG AND NARCOTIC CONTROL. The goals of the program are to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences.

More From BioPortfolio on "Assessing Top Down and Bottom Up Attention Mechanisms in Smokers Using Nicotine Nasal Spray"

Quick Search


Relevant Topics

Alzheimer's Disease
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase  'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...

Searches Linking to this Trial