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The developments of solar lentigine and melasma are due to mutations in keratinocytes that drive the production and transfer of pigment from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
1. Characterize and classify lentigines and mealsma from a clinical and physiological point of view. This will help us to better understand the cellular processes leading to the development of lentigines (also referred to as Senile or Solar Lentigo).
2. Proper characterization and classification of lentigines and melasma would facilitate the development of models to study and find solutions to treat these lesions.
Hypothesis - The developments of solar lentigine and melasma are due to mutations in keratinocytes that drive the production and transfer of pigment from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
Patients, 21 - 80 year old, who have elected to undergo a plastic surgery will be enrolled. Some patient information (i.e. age, sex, race, family history, life-style related to sun-exposure) will be collected.
After surgery, hyper-pigmented spots will be excised and stored in individual containers for subsequent experimental procedures.
Before surgery, the area containing the hyper-pigmented spots will be photographed using a high resolution digital camera and assessed using optical probes (Spectrophotometer to measure skin chromophores, mexameter to measure the melanin and erythema indexes and a diffuse reflectance spectrometer to measure hemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin).
After surgery, excised skin samples will be processed for histological assessments, others for gene or protein expression analysis, and yet another group will be used to isolate keratinocyte and melanocyte to further study their behavior and response to stimuli in primary cultures.
Clinical assessment of Hyperpigmented lesions:
Lentigo Morphological assessment (before surgery)
1. Macules vary in color from yellow, light-brown to black, depending on under-lying skin type
2. Size varies from 1mm to greater than 1 cm
3. Appear on sun-exposed areas (face, neck, etc)
Morphological assessment (before surgery)
1. Irregular light to dark brown to gray brown macules or patches on sun-exposed areas
2. When examine with Wood's lamp, melasma can be classified into 3 types, epidermal, dermal, or mixed, based on intensity of pigments, in which epidermal melasma has darker color than derma melasma. Mixed melasma has a mixture of both dark and light pigmentations
3. Melanocytes in melasma lesion have an increase in the number of mitochondria, golgi apparatus, rough ER, and ribosomes
Spectrophotometer will be used to measure the optical properties of spots and control areas (without the spot)
1. RNA extraction
3. Isolation of Keratinocytes, and Melanocytes.
Observational Model: Case-Only, Time Perspective: Prospective
National University Hospital, Singapore
National University Hospital, Singapore
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:14-0400
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Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).
A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
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