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Hypnotic trance and mindfulness meditation have both been shown to have benefits for physical health. The current study seeks to determine if there are distinct patterns of brain activity that correlate with hypnotic trance, mindfulness meditation or both, and to relate these patterns to measurable markers of physical well-being. Precise neuroimaging of heightened attentional states will guide future researchers and practitioners toward more effective techniques of mind/body control.
Our goal is to determine the functional brain networks that define and distinguish two induced states of sustained attention -- hypnosis and mindfulness -- that may be of substantial relevance to medicine.
Defining the neural underpinnings of these states would have broad implications for understanding how cognitive states emerge from functional networks, how they affect peripheral autonomic nervous system activity, and how their therapeutic efficacy can be optimized.
We propose a functional MRI study using resting state methodology to study 20-40 subjects from each of the four following groups:
1. Highly hypnotizable subjects
2. Minimally hypnotizable subjects
3. Experienced mindfulness meditators
4. Novice mindfulness meditators. The ability to be hypnotized is a stable and measurable trait that can be pre-screened and quantified. Dr. Spiegel will select subjects according to their ability to be hypnotized prior to the MRI visit (see ?recruiting? below). We will seek greatest contrast between groups by enrolling those with the highest (8-10) and lowest (0-2) scores on the Hypnotic Induction Profile. The presence of a poorly hypnotizable group allows for a control condition of those who have undergone an identical induction routine without achieving hypnotic trance. Similarly, novice meditators will serve as a control for the group experienced in mindfulness meditation.
Prior studies have shown differences in both brain activation and grey matter volume associated with longer practice of meditation (> 4 years) compared with novice meditators. As such, experienced meditators will be defined as those with a regular meditation practice of four years or longer. Novice meditators will be new practitioners who are interested in mindfulness meditation practice, and who completed a one-hour meditation training during the week before their study participation.
Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective
Stanford University School of Medicine
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:14-0400
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A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
Process in which a patient is induced into a trance-like state in order to relieve anxiety during a dental procedure.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration. It is also used for hypnosis and for the control of convulsive states. It has been used in neurosurgical patients to reduce increased intracranial pressure. It does not produce any excitation but has poor analgesic and muscle relaxant properties. Small doses have been shown to be anti-analgesic and lower the pain threshold. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p920)
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