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Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Children

2014-07-23 21:08:55 | BioPortfolio

Summary

The goal of this research is to study the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing and associated morbidity in obese children and to examine the role of diet and physical activity in the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in obese children.

Description

In a prospective cohort study, obese children will be recruited. After informed consent is obtained, all children will complete a standardized sleep questionnaire and a pediatric daily sleepiness scale questionnaire. All participants will undergo a complete physical examination, blood tests for lipid profile, liver enzymes, and Glucose and insulin will be obtained, and liver sonography will be performed to assess for the presence of fatty liver. Nasopharyngeal radiographs will be used to assess adenoidal size based on the method by Cohen and Konak. A standard in-laboratory, overnight polysomnography will be performed, within 2 weeks of enrollment to the study, in the sleep laboratory at Asaf Harofeh Medical Center. Children with severe obstructive sleep apnea, defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 will undergo adenotonsillectomy. All children will be referred for a dietary and physical education program. The first visit with the dietician will be considered day 1 of the study. Children will than be followed monthly by a dietician. After three months of follow-up, subjects will be divided into two groups. Group 1 will include all children who had AHI > 2 on the initial polysomnography (including children who underwent adenotonsillectomy for AHI > 15), and group 2 will consist of children who had AHI < 2 on the initial PSG. Children of group 2 will continue monthly dietary visits as before. Children from group 1 will undergo a second evaluation including questionnaires, laboratory blood tests, liver sonography, nasopharyngeal radiographs, and polysomnography. Children who demonstrate reduction in the AHI based on PSG will be offered to continue with dietary treatment alone. Children with no change in the AHI based on PSG will be offered to undergo adenotonsillectomy in addition to continued dietary management. All children will be followed for a total duration of six months. After six months, all children will be re-evaluated by questionnaires, blood tests, liver sonography, and nasopharyngeal radiographs. Polysomnography will be performed in all children who had an AHI > 2 on the second PSG.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Intervention

Diet, Surgery

Location

Asaf Harofeh Medical Center
Zerifin
Israel
70300

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:08:55-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)

Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)

Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.

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