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Primary Hypothesis: Aldosterone breakthrough will occur at a far lower frequency during renin inhibition (0-10% over 9 months), alone or in combination with an ARB, compared to conventional ARB therapy (35-45% over 9 months). The investigators hypothesize that aldosterone breakthrough occurs due to accumulation of active precursor substances, most notably angiotensin II, produced in response to conventional RAAS blockade with ACEinhibitors and ARBs. The investigators believe that direct renin inhibition (DRI) should minimize this accumulation and therefore significantly lower or possibly eliminate the breakthrough effect.
Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), alone and in combination, has become a leading therapy to slow the progression of chronic heart and kidney disease. Both types of drugs inhibit the formation of aldosterone, a hormone, which has been shown to have harmful effects on patients with chronic heart and kidney disorders. This treatment is effective but not perfect since, even after an initial improvement, many patients become worse over the long term. This may be due to an unexpected increase in aldosterone, a phenomenon called "aldosterone breakthrough."
The purpose of this study is to find out whether the use of a direct renin inhibitor (DRI) alone, or in combination with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), will lessen the occurrence of aldosterone breakthrough since direct renin inhibitors inhibit the formation of aldosterone at a very early step. This study will compare the effectiveness of adding Diovan (valsartan) or Tekturna (aliskiren) or a combination of Diovan and Tekturna to the usual antihypertensive treatment. The investigators will follow blood pressure, aldosterone levels, and urinary protein levels over 9 months to evaluate which of these therapies is most effective for treating hypertension in patients with proteinuric kidney disease.
This is a randomized, open-label, three-arm study comparing Diovan (valsartan, an ARB), Tekturna (aliskiren, a DRI), and the combination of valsartan + aliskiren (i.e. ARB + DRI). One hundred twenty subjects (40 per arm) will be treated with Tekturna, Diovan, or a combination of both drugs for 9 months on top of their usual antihypertensive treatment. Changes in urinary aldosterone excretion will be monitored during therapy to measure the incidence of aldosterone breakthrough, defined as any sustained positive change from baseline urinary aldosterone excretion by the completion of the 9-month study period. This frequency measure will be compared during ARB, DRI, and ARB + DRI therapy. Changes in urinary protein excretion will also be monitored alongside the urinary aldosterone levels to determine whether aldosterone breakthrough is associated with refractory proteinuria. This is an innovative study that will be the first to (1) examine aldosterone breakthrough during DRI therapy, and (2) explore whether addition of a DRI to an ARB protects against aldosterone breakthrough. In addition, this will be the first study to examine whether DRI therapy (alone or in combination with ARB) is effective therapy for hypertension in patients with non-diabetic proteinuric kidney disease.
Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Proteinuric Kidney Disease
aliskiren [direct renin inhibitor (DRI)], valsartan [angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)], aliskiren + valsartan (DRI + ARB)
Columbia University Medical Center
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:27-0400
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A tetrazole derivative and ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKER that is used to treat HYPERTENSION.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
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