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The purpose of this study is to evaluate how nicotine, withdrawal from nicotine, and methylphenidate (a drug used for the treatment of ADHD) affect the brain of smokers with and without ADHD while doing tasks in an fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scanner.
1. compared to non-ADHD smokers, smokers with ADHD will exhibit greater abstinence-induced decrements in response inhibition performance and reward and greater concomitant disruptions of brain activity
2. administration of MPH to abstinent smokers will ameliorate response inhibition performance and reward deficits and task-related brain activation and this effect will be greater among ADHD smokers
3. genetic markers of dopamine neurotransmission will moderate abstinence- and MPH - induced changes in task-related brain activation across tasks.
Individuals diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke more than the general population, initiate use at a younger age, and report more difficulty trying to quit. The overarching goal of the present application is to use neuroimaging, neuropharmacological and molecular genetic techniques to study the neurobiological basis of abstinence-induced deficits in response inhibition in ADHD and non-ADHD smokers. Twenty smokers with ADHD and 20 smokers without ADHD will undergo imaging during a Go/No-Go task under the following conditions: 1) smoking as usual, 2) 24 hr smoking abstinence, and 3) 24 hr smoking abstinence + methylphenidate (MPH). We hypothesize that compared to smoking as usual, 24 hr smoking abstinence will result in decrements in response inhibition and disruption of task-related brain activation. These effects will be greater in ADHD as compared to non-ADHD smokers. We further hypothesize that MPH administration during abstinence will restore performance and brain indices of response inhibition and that the magnitude of the effect of MPH will be greater among smokers with ADHD. In addition to the above aims, we will preliminarily evaluate the moderating effects of the dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele on task-related brain activation following smoking abstinence and MPH administration.
Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective
Duke Child and Family Study Center//Duke Health Behavior Neuroscience Research Program
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:40-0400
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Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A benzazepine derivative that functions as an ALPHA4/BETA2 NICOTINIC RECEPTOR partial agonist. It is used for SMOKING CESSATION.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
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