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The purpose of this research is to further study the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the BCG vaccine is more effective in preventing TB in adults if it is given after 6 months of treatment with a widely used anti-TB drug, isoniazid (INH). Participants will include 82 healthy, tuberculin skin test positive (TST+), HIV-uninfected, male and female volunteers, aged 18-40 years. The study will be conducted in Worcester, South Africa. Subjects will be assigned by chance to 1 of 2 possible treatment groups. Group 1 will receive 6 months of oral INH treatment followed by intradermal (administered into the skin) BCG revaccination and one year of follow-up. Group 2 will be observed for 7 months which will be followed by intradermal BCG revaccination and another 6 months of follow-up. Then 6 months of INH treatment will be given. Participants will be involved in study procedures for about to 22 months.
This study is a phase I, single-center, open label, randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effect of pre-clearance of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by Isoniazid, isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH) treatment before Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) revaccination versus BCG revaccination alone on mycobacterial-specific immune responses in tuberculin skin test (TST) positive adults. Subjects initially assigned to observation prior to BCG revaccination will receive INH treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) beginning six months after revaccination. Volunteers will include 82 healthy, TST positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected, male and female persons aged 18-40 years. The primary objectives of the study are to: determine the effect of INH preclearance on the kinetics and characteristics of the specific immune response following BCG revaccination in adults with latent MTB infection (TST positive); and determine the safety and reactogenicity of BCG revaccination in TST positive adults. The secondary objectives of the study are to: determine the effect of INH preclearance and BCG revaccination on MTB-specific Th1 effector and central memory cell function; determine the effect of INH preclearance and BCG revaccination on MTB-specific Treg cell function; and determine the effect of INH preclearance and BCG revaccination on innate immune responses as measured by T cell mediated inhibition of intracellular mycobacterial growth and inflammatory cytokine production. All subjects are expected to be enrolled over 12 months. The duration of screening, enrollment, and follow-up for subjects is up to 22 months. Subjects will be randomly assigned to receive either: 6 months of INH treatment for LTBI (completed within no more than 7 months) followed by intradermal BCG revaccination or 7 months of observation (run in period) followed by intradermal BCG revaccination followed after 6 months of observation by 6 months of INH treatment for LTBI. Both groups will receive their BCG vaccinations during the same time period. Volunteers will be evaluated at 7 and 14 days and 1, 3, 6 and/or 12 months after BCG revaccination and each month of INH therapy and the end of study for safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity. Blood for immunologic studies will be drawn at study enrollment for subjects, just prior to BCG revaccination, and 1, 2 weeks and 1, 3 and either 6 or 12 months (depending on which study arm) after BCG vaccination, and months 1, 3, 6 of INH therapy and the end of study for measurement of MTB specific T cell responses. Both treatment arms will be followed for safety and immunogenicity endpoints for 12 months after BCG revaccination. Immunologic outcomes have been chosen with the goal of measuring the characteristics and kinetics of human immune responses following BCG vaccination to support the ultimate aim of developing methods to determine the biological relevance of immune responses induced by BCG revaccination and their relevance to protection from tuberculosis (TB). Overall, this study may provide key information on the characteristics and kinetics of immune responses following BCG revaccination in adults and whether these are affected by preclearance with INH treatment of LTBI.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Case Western Reserve University
Not yet recruiting
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:52-0400
Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of isoniazid (INH) vs. no INH to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants.
To evaluate adherence and safety of three regimens of chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients with positive tuberculin skin test.
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The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.
Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...