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Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist commonly used during neurosurgery due to its unique properties as a sedative and anxiolytic with minimal respiratory depression. Neurosurgical patients frequently come to the operating room on anticonvulsant therapy with a history of seizures. The investigators clinical experience suggests that these patients are resistant to the sedative effects of dexmedetomidine. This effect may represent a pharmacokinetic interaction between the anticonvulsant medications and dexmedetomidine or the higher dexmedetomidine dose requirement could result from abnormal pharmacodynamics due to the underlying seizure disorder. The investigators study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences of dexmedetomidine between patients receiving and not receiving enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant therapy and to identify a potential mechanism for these differences.
Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label
University of California San Francisco
University of California, San Francisco
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:58-0400
The purpose of this study is to determine pharmacodynamic interactions of propofol and dexmedetomidine,exploring the effect of dexmedetomidine on propofol unconsciousness median effective ...
This is a pilot study to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine in the prevention of delirium in non-cardiac surgical patients. The preliminary data regarding the effect of dexmedetomidine...
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and is characterized by functional impairment in social communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors.The c...
The depth of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is difficult to assess without arousing the patient. We evaluated frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) as an objective measure of dexmedetomidine-induced se...
Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective central α2-agonist, undergoes mainly biotransformation in the liver. The pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine were significantly affected by hepatic insufficiency. ...
Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used off-label in infants and children with cardiac disease during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and in the postoperative period. Despite its frequent use, optimal dosin...
Epilepsy disorders are the most common treatable neurological disorders in childhood. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders has improved over time. Children with epilepsy/seizure disorder are mor...
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine versus any other treatment without dexmedetomidine in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. Electronic databases includin...
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
A selective inhibitor of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that has analgesic and sedative properties. MEDETOMIDINE is the other racemic form.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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