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Dexmedetomidine in Seizure Patients

2014-08-27 03:13:58 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist commonly used during neurosurgery due to its unique properties as a sedative and anxiolytic with minimal respiratory depression. Neurosurgical patients frequently come to the operating room on anticonvulsant therapy with a history of seizures. The investigators clinical experience suggests that these patients are resistant to the sedative effects of dexmedetomidine. This effect may represent a pharmacokinetic interaction between the anticonvulsant medications and dexmedetomidine or the higher dexmedetomidine dose requirement could result from abnormal pharmacodynamics due to the underlying seizure disorder. The investigators study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences of dexmedetomidine between patients receiving and not receiving enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant therapy and to identify a potential mechanism for these differences.

Study Design

Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label

Conditions

Seizure Disorders

Intervention

Dexmedetomidine

Location

University of California San Francisco
San Francisco
California
United States
94122

Status

Completed

Source

University of California, San Francisco

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:13:58-0400

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The purpose of this study is to determine pharmacodynamic interactions of propofol and dexmedetomidine,exploring the effect of dexmedetomidine on propofol unconsciousness median effective ...

Cognitive Protection - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve

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Influence of Gender on Interaction of Propofol and Dexmedetomidine

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender on pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and dexmedetomidine, exploring the effect of gender on propofol unconsciousness me...

Pharmacokinetic Study of Dexmedetomidine After Intra-nasal Dosing in Children

This research study is examining the absorption of the sedative dexmedetomidine (DEX) in the blood when given by nasal spray. The study will help us determine the best dosing amount for ch...

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Transmucosal Dexmedetomidine.

Oral trans-mucosal administration is relatively easy and convenient, it also reduces first pass metabolism and has been used successfully for fentanyl, ketamine, and midazolam premedicatio...

PubMed Articles [5809 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Relationships of depression and anxiety symptoms with seizure frequency: Results from a multicenter follow-up study.

Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequent among people with epilepsies. There are, however, only few longitudinal studies, which examine the relationship between these comorbid psychiatric disorde...

Effect of dexmedetomidine for attenuation of propofol injection pain in electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled study.

Current analgesic strategies for propofol injection pain may cause adverse reactions during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), such as shortening seizure duration. This study investigated whether dexmed...

The first seizure as an indicator of epilepsy.

Optimal treatment of a possible first seizure depends on the determination if the paroxysmal event was an epileptic seizure and was on an accurate assessment of the recurrence risk. This review summar...

Iron Deficiency Affects Seizure Susceptibility in a Time- and Sex-Specific Manner.

Iron deficiency (ID) affects more than three billion people worldwide making it the most common micronutrient deficiency. ID is most prevalent during gestation and early life, which is of particular c...

Median effective dose of intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation for transthoracic echocardiography in pediatric patients with noncyanotic congenital heart disease: An up-and-down sequential allocation trial.

Intranasal dexmedetomidine can provide adequate sedation during short procedures. However, previous literature investigating the single-dose use of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation during trans...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)

A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.

An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.

A selective inhibitor of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that has analgesic and sedative properties. MEDETOMIDINE is the other racemic form.

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