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In Afghanistan, studies over the past 15 years have shown a high degree of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (80%) and more recently an increasing degree of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy (12%). In 2003 the high failure rate of chloroquine against falciparum malaria led the national malaria treatment programme to switch its recommended first line drug treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of Artesunate/Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP). Second line drug treatment is oral quinine (7 days). The aim of this study is to conduct ongoing monitoring of the efficacy of the new combination against P. falciparum in a group of sentinel sites in Afghanistan.
The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of Artesunate/Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infections in Nangarhar, Kunar, Thakhar, Faryab malaria control centers in Afghanistan.
This is an observational study. Patients will receive the recommended treatment for P. falciparum malaria in Afghanistan (Nangarhar, Kunar, Thakhar, Faryab malaria control centers). The participants will be febrile children above six months of age and non-pregnant adults with confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum infection. Patients will be treated with AS+SP according to standard dosing regimens. Clinical and parasitological parameters will be monitored over a 42-day follow-up period to evaluate drug efficacy. The study will be conducted during the transmission season of falciparum malaria, i.e. October 2009 to January 2010 and September-December, 2010. Patients will be assessed clinically and via laboratory tests, particularly focussing on whether recurrences are recrudescences of the original infection or reinfections. All bio-medical findings will be recorded in specific patient case record forms and the electronic form of analyzed data as well as a final report will be sent to WHO-Afghanistan and National malaria control program offices for further actions. The patients will receive reasonable transportation costs for follow-up visits as well as one insecticide treated bed-net at the end of enrolment. The results of this study will be used to assist the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan in assessing the current national treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.
Observational Model: Case-Only, Time Perspective: Prospective
artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP)
Provincial Malaria Control Centers (MRC)
University of Oxford
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:14:00-0400
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A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A synthetic TETRACYCLINE derivative with similar antimicrobial activity. Animal studies suggest that it may cause less tooth staining than other tetracyclines. It is used in some areas for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM).
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
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